Tag Archives: infectious disease outbreaks

Resources for Responding to the Challenges of Coronavirus Outbreaks

Last week, Chinese government authorities expanded a travel lockdown in parts of that country in an effort to prevent further spread of a coronavirus outbreak originating in Wuhan City.
Outbreaks and pandemics of infectious diseases pose major threats to public health, health security, and societal and economic stability at the local, national, and global levels. Our publications explore the critical challenges in developing, evaluating, and deploying medical countermeasures and other interventions to adequately counter major outbreaks; strengthening preparedness and response from local to national levels; supporting health care workers on the front lines of treatment; and preventing spread of disease. All are free to read online or download.

Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop

In November 2018, an ad hoc planning committee at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine planned two sister workshops held in Washington, DC, to examine the lessons from influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks, …

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Stronger Food and Drug Regulatory Systems Abroad

Ensuring the safety of food and the quality and safety of medicines in a country is an important role of government, made more complicated by global manufacturing and international trade. By recent estimates, unsafe food kills over 400,000 people …

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Preparing Airports for Communicable Diseases on Arriving Flights

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 83: Preparing Airports for Communicable Diseases on Arriving Flights examines current disease preparedness and response practices at U.S. and Canadian airports in coordination with …

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The Neglected Dimension of Global Security: A Framework to Counter Infectious Disease Crises

Since the 2014 Ebola outbreak many public- and private-sector leaders have seen a need for improved management of global public health emergencies. The effects of the Ebola epidemic go well beyond the three hardest-hit countries and beyond the …

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Global Health Risk Framework: Resilient and Sustainable Health Systems to Respond to Global Infectious Disease Outbreaks: Workshop Summary

Since the 2014 Ebola outbreak many public- and private-sector leaders have seen a need for improved management of global public health emergencies. The effects of the Ebola epidemic go well beyond the three hardest-hit countries and beyond the …

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The Use and Effectiveness of Powered Air Purifying Respirators in Health Care: Workshop Summary

Protecting 18 million United States health care workers from infectious agents – known and unknown – involves a range of occupational safety and health measures that include identifying and using appropriate protective equipment. The 2009 H1N1 …

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Crisis Standards of Care: A Systems Framework for Catastrophic Disaster Response: Volume 1: Introduction and CSC Framework

Catastrophic disasters occurring in 2011 in the United States and worldwide–from the tornado in Joplin, Missouri, to the earthquake and tsunami in Japan, to the earthquake in New Zealand–have demonstrated that even prepared communities can be …

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Crisis Standards of Care: A Toolkit for Indicators and Triggers

Disasters and public health emergencies can stress health care systems to the breaking point and disrupt delivery of vital medical services. During such crises, hospitals and long-term care facilities may be without power; trained staff, …

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Quarantine Facilities for Arriving Air Travelers: Identification of Planning Needs and Costs

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 5: Quarantine Facilities for Arriving Air Travelers: Identification of Planning Needs and Costs explores facility issues, security considerations, and estimated costs …

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Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary

Modern transportation allows people, animals, and plants–and the pathogens they carry–to travel more easily than ever before. The ease and speed of travel, tourism, and international trade connect once-remote areas with one another, eliminating …

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Preparing for an Influenza Pandemic: Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers

During an influenza pandemic, healthcare workers will be on the front lines delivering care to patients and preventing further spread of the disease. As the nation prepares for pandemic influenza, multiple avenues for protecting the health of the …

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Addressing the Global Challenge of Ebola and Infectious Disease Outbreaks

On Wednesday, July 17th, 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) Emergency Committee released a statement declaring the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) an international emergency. The statement announced that, on average, 80 new cases are reported each week along the northeastern border of the DRC. Because thousands cross this border to Rwanda daily, the national and regional risk is very high. Furthermore, the US Department of State now considers the North Kivu and Ituri Provinces in the DRC a “Level 4: Do Not Travel” zone due to the threats to safety caused by local conflicts and the Ebola outbreak. Preexisting unstable political conditions, poor security and limited infection control practices add to the complexity of the situation. Two community health workers were murdered last week, contributing to the unrest. Now the disease has reached Goma, a city with nearly two million people and an international airport, leading WHO to take action.

According to WHO, the virus continues to spread geographically, despite improvements in outbreak surveillance and decreases in virus transmissions. Additional resources, local community involvement, increased security measures, and efforts across multiple sectors are still necessary to control this outbreak. Our reports explore recent Ebola outbreaks, infectious disease control and prevention, and global health policy, and provide guidance for decision-making. All reports are free to read or download.

 

Integrating Clinical Research into Epidemic Response: The Ebola Experience

The 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in western Africa was the longest and most deadly Ebola epidemic in history, resulting in 28,616 cases and 11,310 deaths in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The Ebola virus has been known since 1976, when two …

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Global Health and the Future Role of the United States

While much progress has been made on achieving the Millenium Development Goals over the last decade, the number and complexity of global health challenges has persisted. Growing forces for globalization have increased the interconnectedness of …

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The Neglected Dimension of Global Security: A Framework to Counter Infectious Disease Crises

Since the 2014 Ebola outbreak many public- and private-sector leaders have seen a need for improved management of global public health emergencies. The effects of the Ebola epidemic go well beyond the three hardest-hit countries and beyond the …

[more]