Category Archives: General Topics

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The Future of Biotechnology – Guiding Change to Advance Science

Advances in science, new actors, economic investments, and societal challenges and concerns will all influence new types of biotechnology products in development. These publications explore possibilities, obstacles, and societal considerations as we experience changes in the scope, scale, complexity, and tempo of biotechnology products. All are free to read or download.

Safeguarding the Bioeconomy

Research and innovation in the life sciences is driving rapid growth in agriculture, biomedical science, information science and computing, energy, and other sectors of the U.S. economy. This economic activity, conceptually referred to as the …

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Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations

The American chestnut, whitebark pine, and several species of ash in the eastern United States are just a few of the North American tree species that have been functionally lost or are in jeopardy of being lost due to outbreaks of pathogens and …

[more]

The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through

Since the end of the Second World War, the United States has developed the world’s preeminent system for biomedical research, one that has given rise to revolutionary medical advances as well as a dynamic and innovative business sector …

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Biodefense in the Age of Synthetic Biology

Scientific advances over the past several decades have accelerated the ability to engineer existing organisms and to potentially create novel ones not found in nature. Synthetic biology, which collectively refers to concepts, approaches, and …

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Preparing for Future Products of Biotechnology

Between 1973 and 2016, the ways to manipulate DNA to endow new characteristics in an organism (that is, biotechnology) have advanced, enabling the development of products that were not previously possible. What will the likely future products of …

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Dual Use Research of Concern in the Life Sciences: Current Issues and Controversies

The potential misuse of advances in life sciences research is raising concerns about national security threats. Dual Use Research of Concern in the Life Sciences: Current Issues and Controversies examines the U.S. strategy for reducing …

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Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects

Genetically engineered (GE) crops were first introduced commercially in the 1990s. After two decades of production, some groups and individuals remain critical of the technology based on their concerns about possible adverse effects on human …

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Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values

Research on gene drive systems is rapidly advancing. Many proposed applications of gene drive research aim to solve environmental and public health challenges, including the reduction of poverty and the burden of vector-borne diseases, such as …

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Industrialization of Biology: A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals

The tremendous progress in biology over the last half century – from Watson and Crick’s elucidation of the structure of DNA to today’s astonishing, rapid progress in the field of synthetic biology – has positioned us for significant innovation in …

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Positioning Synthetic Biology to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century: Summary Report of a Six Academies Symposium Series

Synthetic biology — unlike any research discipline that precedes it — has the potential to bypass the less predictable process of evolution to usher in a new and dynamic way of working with living systems. Ultimately, synthetic biologists hope …

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Convergence: Facilitating Transdisciplinary Integration of Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Engineering, and Beyond

Convergence of the life sciences with fields including physical, chemical, mathematical, computational, engineering, and social sciences is a key strategy to tackle complex challenges and achieve new and innovative solutions. However, …

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Pain Management and the Opioid Use Disorder Epidemic: Resources to Understand and Respond to a Public Health Emergency

In a continuing public health emergency, more than 2 million people in the United States have opioid use disorder, a life-threatening chronic brain disease caused by prolonged use of prescription opioids, heroin, or other illicit opioids. It is critical to seek solutions to this epidemic that balance society’s interest in reducing opioid-related harms with the needs of individuals suffering from pain. Our publications examine the opioid use disorder epidemic and its effects, explore tools for pain management and their implications, and propose new pain management alternatives for the future.

Framing Opioid Prescribing Guidelines for Acute Pain: Developing the Evidence

The opioid overdose epidemic combined with the need to reduce the burden of acute pain poses a public health challenge. To address how evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for prescribing opioids for acute pain might help meet this …

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Medications for Opioid Use Disorder Save Lives

The opioid crisis in the United States has come about because of excessive use of these drugs for both legal and illicit purposes and unprecedented levels of consequent opioid use disorder (OUD). More than 2 million people in the United States …

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Pain Management and the Opioid Epidemic: Balancing Societal and Individual Benefits and Risks of Prescription Opioid Use

Drug overdose, driven largely by overdose related to the use of opioids, is now the leading cause of unintentional injury death in the United States. The ongoing opioid crisis lies at the intersection of two public health challenges: reducing the …

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Pain Management and Prescription Opioid-Related Harms: Exploring the State of the Evidence: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

On September 22, 2016, the Committee on Pain Management and Regulatory Strategies to Address Prescription Opioid Abuse held a workshop titled “Pain Management and Prescription Opioid-Related Harms: Exploring the State of the Evidence.” The …

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Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

On October 30 and 31, 2018, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a 1.5-day workshop on Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) for Opioid Use Disorder (OUD). The workshop participants reviewed the current knowledge and …

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Integrating Responses at the Intersection of Opioid Use Disorder and Infectious Disease Epidemics: Proceedings of a Workshop

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 115 Americans die each day from an opioid overdose, which averages one death every 12.5 minutes. Between 1999 and 2016, the number of drug overdoses catapulted by 300 percent, …

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Advancing Therapeutic Development for Pain and Opioid Use Disorders Through Public-Private Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop

Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent, costly, and disabling health conditions in the United States. Estimates show that more than 11 percent of the American population suffer from chronic pain, yet the federal pain research investment has …

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Pain Management for People with Serious Illness in the Context of the Opioid Use Disorder Epidemic: Proceedings of a Workshop

The United States is facing an opioid use disorder epidemic with opioid overdoses killing 47,000 people in the U.S. in 2017. The past three decades have witnessed a significant increase in the prescribing of opioids for pain, based on the belief …

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Supporting Diversity and Inclusion in STEMM Education to Build a Workforce for the 21st Century


The level of education and the skills required in the 21st century are very different from those needed in the previous century. Careers of the future will require workers with strong technical knowledge and skills as well as the ability to solve problems, think creatively, work collaboratively, and function as lifelong learners. While education in general is critical to the nation’s future, it is widely recognized that the specific skills often acquired in the study of science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) fields are increasingly needed across the economy.

In order to meet the challenges of our changing economy and maintain U.S. leadership in innovation and competitiveness, we need to develop talent from across all sectors of our society, including among those who may not in the past have been afforded a quality education or those for whom society has not had expectations for success in STEM fields. Our reports provide a comprehensive road map for increasing involvement of absent and underrepresented minorities, including the elimination of racial and gender bias in academia and recruiting women students and faculty in science and engineering.

Minority Serving Institutions: America’s Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce

There are over 20 million young people of color in the United States whose representation in STEM education pathways and in the STEM workforce is still far below their numbers in the general population. Their participation could help re-establish …

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Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Over the last few decades, research, activity, and funding has been devoted to improving the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in the fields of science, engineering, and medicine. In recent years the diversity of those …

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Together We Can Do Better: A Gathering of Leaders in Academia to Prevent Sexual Harassment: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

In recent decades, important gains have been made with respect to the participation of women in science, technology, engineering, and medical (STEM) disciplines at the undergraduate and graduate levels in the United States. More women than ever …

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The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through

Since the end of the Second World War, the United States has developed the world’s preeminent system for biomedical research, one that has given rise to revolutionary medical advances as well as a dynamic and innovative business sector …

[more]

An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop

Black men are increasingly underrepresented in medical schools and in the medical profession. A diverse workforce is a key attribute of quality healthcare and research suggests that a diverse workforce may help to advance cultural competency and …

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Assessing and Responding to the Growth of Computer Science Undergraduate Enrollments

The field of computer science (CS) is currently experiencing a surge in undergraduate degree production and course enrollments, which is straining program resources at many institutions and causing concern among faculty and administrators about …

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Data Science for Undergraduates: Opportunities and Options

Data science is emerging as a field that is revolutionizing science and industries alike. Work across nearly all domains is becoming more data driven, affecting both the jobs that are available and the skills that are required. As more data and …

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Building America’s Skilled Technical Workforce

Skilled technical occupations—defined as occupations that require a high level of knowledge in a technical domain but do not require a bachelor’s degree for entry—are a key component of the U.S. economy. In response to globalization and …

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Seeking Solutions: Maximizing American Talent by Advancing Women of Color in Academia: Summary of a Conference

Seeking Solutions: Maximizing American Talent by Advancing Women of Color in Academia is the summary of a 2013 conference convened by the Committee on Women in Science, Engineering and Medicine of the National Research Council to discuss …

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The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM

Mentorship is a catalyst capable of unleashing one’s potential for discovery, curiosity, and participation in STEMM and subsequently improving the training environment in which that STEMM potential is fostered. Mentoring relationships provide …

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How People Learn II: Learners, Contexts, and Cultures

There are many reasons to be curious about the way people learn, and the past several decades have seen an explosion of research that has important implications for individual learning, schooling, workforce training, and policy.

In 2000, …

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Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century

The U.S. system of graduate education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has served the nation and its science and engineering enterprise extremely well. Over the course of their education, graduate students become …

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Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation: America’s Science and Technology Talent at the Crossroads

In order for the United States to maintain the global leadership and competitiveness in science and technology that are critical to achieving national goals, we must invest in research, encourage innovation, and grow a strong and talented science …

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Making the Leap from High School to College: Resources to Support Successful STEMM Education


Educational attainment—the number of years a person spends in school—strongly predicts adult earnings, as well as health and civic engagement. In order to pursue a successful career in fields of science, technology, engineering, mathematics or medicine (STEMM), college-ready students need foundational knowledge, opportunities to pursue more advanced material, and support as they develop interpersonal and intrapersonal skills that will help them overcome challenges. Our publications provide guidance to develop and support the next generation of students.

Science and Engineering for Grades 6-12: Investigation and Design at the Center

It is essential for today’s students to learn about science and engineering in order to make sense of the world around them and participate as informed members of a democratic society. The skills and ways of thinking that are developed and …

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English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives

The imperative that all students, including English learners (ELs), achieve high academic standards and have opportunities to participate in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning has become even more urgent and complex …

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Increasing Student Success in Developmental Mathematics: Proceedings of a Workshop

The Board on Science Education and the Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened the Workshop on Increasing Student Success in Developmental Mathematics on March 18-19, …

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Supporting Students’ College Success: The Role of Assessment of Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Competencies

The importance of higher education has never been clearer. Educational attainment—the number of years a person spends in school—strongly predicts adult earnings, as well as health and civic engagement. Yet relative to other developed nations, …

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The Promise of Adolescence: Realizing Opportunity for All Youth

Adolescence—beginning with the onset of puberty and ending in the mid-20s—is a critical period of development during which key areas of the brain mature and develop. These changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity mark …

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How People Learn II: Learners, Contexts, and Cultures

There are many reasons to be curious about the way people learn, and the past several decades have seen an explosion of research that has important implications for individual learning, schooling, workforce training, and policy.

In 2000, …

[more]

A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas

Science, engineering, and technology permeate nearly every facet of modern life and hold the key to solving many of humanity’s most pressing current and future challenges. The United States’ position in the global economy is declining, in part …

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Barriers and Opportunities for 2-Year and 4-Year STEM Degrees: Systemic Change to Support Students’ Diverse Pathways

Nearly 40 percent of the students entering 2- and 4-year postsecondary institutions indicated their intention to major in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in 2012. But the barriers to students realizing their ambitions are …

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Science on Tobacco and E-Cigarettes: Evidence-Based Public Health Resources


Cigarette smoking causes 440,000 deaths annually and results in $193 billion in health-related economic losses each year. There is overwhelming and conclusive biologic, epidemiologic, behavioral, and pharmacologic evidence that demonstrates the deadly health effects of tobacco use. Millions of Americans who smoke have resorted to e-cigarettes to avoid these health concerns. Individuals who have never used tobacco, such as youth and young adults, have also embraced this new product. In light of the recent national outbreak of smoking-related lung injury, many are concerned that e-cigarettes contain possibly toxic substances.

Our publications synthesize and discuss the most current evidence and information on traditional tobacco use and e-cigarettes. These reports critically assess the state of the emerging evidence, highlight opportunities for further health-related research, and inform decision making.

Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes

Millions of Americans use e-cigarettes. Despite their popularity, little is known about their health effects. Some suggest that e-cigarettes likely confer lower risk compared to combustible tobacco cigarettes, because they do not expose users to …

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Public Health Implications of Raising the Minimum Age of Legal Access to Tobacco Products

Tobacco use by adolescents and young adults poses serious concerns. Nearly all adults who have ever smoked daily first tried a cigarette before 26 years of age. Current cigarette use among adults is highest among persons aged 21 to 25 years. The …

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Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Effects: Making Sense of the Evidence

Data suggest that exposure to secondhand smoke can result in heart disease in nonsmoking adults. Recently, progress has been made in reducing involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke through legislation banning smoking in workplaces, restaurants, …

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Understanding the U.S. Illicit Tobacco Market: Characteristics, Policy Context, and Lessons from International Experiences

Tobacco use has declined because of measures such as high taxes on tobacco products and bans on advertising, but worldwide there are still more than one billion people who regularly use tobacco, including many who purchase products illicitly. By …

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Assessing the Use of Agent-Based Models for Tobacco Regulation

Tobacco consumption continues to be the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products – specifically …

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Scientific Standards for Studies on Modified Risk Tobacco Products

Smoking-related diseases kill more Americans than alcohol, illegal drugs, murder and suicide combined. The passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gave the FDA authority to regulate “modified risk tobacco …

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Ending the Tobacco Problem: A Blueprint for the Nation

The nation has made tremendous progress in reducing tobacco use during the past 40 years. Despite extensive knowledge about successful interventions, however, approximately one-quarter of American adults still smoke. Tobacco-related illnesses and …

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Combating Tobacco Use in Military and Veteran Populations

The health and economic costs of tobacco use in military and veteran populations are high. In 2007, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) requested that the Institute of Medicine (IOM) make recommendations on …

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Bridge Safety: Improving Infrastructure to Meet 21st Century Transportation Needs

Bridges are critical to the nation’s transportation system and economy. With an average age of 43 years, existing U.S. bridges are subject to aging, deterioration, corrosion, cracking, delamination, material fatigue, and chemical degradation. These problems may occur naturally over time or as a result of conditions such as traffic and weather events. According to the American Road and Transportation Builders Association, approximately 178 million vehicles cross over 47,000 structurally deficient U.S. bridges every day.

Our titles discuss issues of the design, maintenance, and inspection of bridges, and offer guidance to transportation agencies, builders, and federal, state, and local planners. All are free to download.

Renewing the National Commitment to the Interstate Highway System: A Foundation for the Future

TRB Special Report 329: Renewing the National Commitment to the Interstate Highway System: A Foundation for the Future explores pending and future federal investment and policy decisions concerning the federal Interstate Highway System. Congress …

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The Vital Federal Role in Meeting the Highway Innovation Imperative

TRB Special Report 331 concludes that with sustained and adequate funding and modest improvements in research, development, and technology (RD&T), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint …

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Performance of Bridges That Received Funding Under the Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program

TRB Special Report 330: Performance of Bridges That Received Funding Under the Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program, examines the results of a federal program to promote innovation in highway bridge construction. The report …

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Research to Support Evaluation of Truck Size and Weight Regulations

TRB’s Truck Size and Weight Limits Research Plan Committee has issued its second and final report, Research to Support Evaluation of Truck Size and Weight Regulations, to the U.S. Department of Transportation. The report presents a research plan …

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Bridge System Safety and Redundancy

TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 776: Bridge System Safety and Redundancy provides proposed revisions to the design philosophy section of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials …

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Proposed Guideline for Reliability-Based Bridge Inspection Practices

TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 782: Proposed Guideline for Reliability-Based Bridge Inspection Practices presents a proposed guideline for reliability-based bridge inspection practices and provides two case …

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State Bridge Load Posting Processes and Practices

TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 453: State Bridge Load Posting Processes and Practices is a synthesis of the practices of U.S. state governments in restricting weights of vehicles that can cross highway …

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Bridges for Service Life Beyond 100 Years: Innovative Systems, Subsystems, and Components

TRB’s second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) Report S2-R19A-RW-1: Bridges for Service Life Beyond 100 Years: Innovative Systems, Subsystems, and Components develops approaches and procedures to enhance service life design for …

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Sharing Clinical Trial Data to Advance Scientific Discovery and Improve Care

Clinical trials generate vast amounts of data, yet a large portion of this information is never published or made available to other researchers. Data sharing could advance scientific discovery and improve clinical care, but it involves potential risks and costs for key stakeholders, including clinical trialists, sponsors, researchers, and patients. Our publications discuss the challenges and opportunities for stakeholders to better harmonize incentives, policy, data standards, and governance to encourage the sharing and reuse of clinical trial data sharing.

Sharing Clinical Trial Data: Maximizing Benefits, Minimizing Risk

Data sharing can accelerate new discoveries by avoiding duplicative trials, stimulating new ideas for research, and enabling the maximal scientific knowledge and benefits to be gained from the efforts of clinical trial participants and …

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The Prevention and Treatment of Missing Data in Clinical Trials

Randomized clinical trials are the primary tool for evaluating new medical interventions. Randomization provides for a fair comparison between treatment and control groups, balancing out, on average, distributions of known and unknown factors …

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Sharing Clinical Research Data: Workshop Summary

Pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers, and government agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of Health all possess large quantities of clinical research data. If these data were shared more widely …

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Biomarker Tests for Molecularly Targeted Therapies: Key to Unlocking Precision Medicine

Every patient is unique, and the evolving field of precision medicine aims to ensure the delivery of the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. In an era of rapid advances in biomedicine and enhanced understanding of the genetic …

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Discussion Framework for Clinical Trial Data Sharing: Guiding Principles, Elements, and Activities

Sharing data generated through the conduct of clinical trials offers the promise of placing evidence about the safety and efficacy of therapies and clinical interventions on a firmer basis and enhancing the benefits of clinical trials. …

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A National Cancer Clinical Trials System for the 21st Century: Reinvigorating the NCI Cooperative Group Program

The National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Program has played a key role in developing new and improved cancer therapies. However, the program is falling short of its potential, and the IOM recommends changes that aim …

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Ovarian Cancers: Evolving Paradigms in Research and Care

In an era of promising advances in cancer research, there are considerable and even alarming gaps in the fundamental knowledge and understanding of ovarian cancer. Researchers now know that ovarian cancer is not a single disease–several distinct …

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Improving the Nation’s Electric Power Grid: Challenges and Opportunities

 

The electric power and distribution system in the United States is a critical component of our infrastructure that people rely on every day. It is a complex network of wires, transformers, and associated equipment and control software designed to transmit electricity from where it is generated, usually in centralized power plants, to commercial, residential, and industrial users. As the U.S. infrastructure has become increasingly dependent on electricity, vulnerabilities in the grid have the potential to cascade well beyond whether the lights turn on, impacting basic services such as the fueling infrastructure, the economic system, and emergency services. Our publications explore how to create an electric power grid for the future – one that optimizes operational efficiency and is resilient against attacks and disasters.

 

Analytic Research Foundations for the Next-Generation Electric Grid

Electricity is the lifeblood of modern society, and for the vast majority of people that electricity is obtained from large, interconnected power grids. However, the grid that was developed in the 20th century, and the incremental improvements made since then, including its underlying analytic …

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Mathematical Sciences Research Challenges for the Next-Generation Electric Grid: Summary of a Workshop

If the United States is to sustain its economic prosperity, quality of life, and global competitiveness, it must continue to have an abundance of secure, reliable, and affordable energy resources. There have been many improvements in the technology and capability of the electric grid over the …

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Enhancing the Resilience of the Nation’s Electricity System

Americans’ safety, productivity, comfort, and convenience depend on the reliable supply of electric power. The electric power system is a complex “cyber-physical” system composed of a network of millions of components spread out across the continent. These components are owned, operated, …

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The Resilience of the Electric Power Delivery System in Response to Terrorism and Natural Disasters: Summary of a Workshop

The Resilience of the Electric Power Delivery System in Response to Terrorism and Natural Disasters is the summary of a workshop convened in February 2013 as a follow-up to the release of the National Research Council report Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System. That …

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Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System

The electric power delivery system that carries electricity from large central generators to customers could be severely damaged by a small number of well-informed attackers. The system is inherently vulnerable because transmission lines may span hundreds of miles, and many key facilities are …

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National Domestic Violence Awareness Month: Resources for Action and Prevention

Domestic violence has numerous mental, neurocognitive, and psychosocial impacts across the lifespan, affecting the health and opportunities of many individuals. The National Academies’ Forum on Global Violence Prevention works to reduce violence worldwide by promoting research on both protective and risk factors and encouraging evidence-based prevention efforts. The Forum aims to facilitate dialogue and exchange by bringing together experts from all areas of violence prevention, including behavioral scientists, policy makers, criminal justice professionals, social service providers, economists, legal experts, journalists, philanthropists, faith-based organizations, corporate social responsibility officers, among others. These publications assess the impact of violence across the lifespan in order to improve the welfare of individuals and society.

Addressing the Social and Cultural Norms That Underlie the Acceptance of Violence: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Social and cultural norms are rules or expectations of behavior and thoughts based on shared beliefs within a specific cultural or social group. While often unspoken, norms offer social standards for appropriate and inappropriate behavior that …

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Identifying the Role of Violence and Its Prevention in the Post-2015 Global Agenda: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

To illuminate the role of violence and its prevention in the post-2015 global agenda, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine’s Forum on Global Violence Prevention convened a 2-day meeting to explore the ways in which …

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The Neurocognitive and Psychosocial Impacts of Violence and Trauma: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Childhood experiences, both positive and negative, can affect an individual’s health and opportunities as an adult and have far-reaching effects on future violence victimization and perpetration. To better understand the impact of violence and …

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Violence and Mental Health: Opportunities for Prevention and Early Detection: Proceedings of a Workshop

On February 26–27, 2014, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Forum on Global Violence Prevention convened a workshop titled Mental Health and Violence: Opportunities for Prevention and Early Intervention. The …

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Public Policy Approaches to Violence Prevention: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop on December 1–2, 2016, with the aim of illuminating the ways in which violence prevention practitioners can effectively share their evidenced-based research findings …

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Means of Violence: Workshop in Brief

In an average day, there are approximately 4,000 violent deaths across the globe. In 1 week, there are 26,000 and in 1 month, 120,000. Workshop speaker James Mercy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention highlighted that these figures …

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Preventing Intimate Partner Violence in Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania: Summary of a Joint Workshop by the Institute of Medicine, the National Research Council, and the Uganda National Academy of Sciences

Globally, between 15-71 percent of women will experience physical and/or sexual abuse from an intimate partner at some point in their lifetime. Too often this preventable form of violence is repetitive in nature, occurring at multiple points …

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Elder Abuse and Its Prevention: Workshop Summary

Elder Abuse and Its Prevention is the summary of a workshop convened in April 2013 by the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Global Violence Prevention. Using an ecological framework, this workshop explored the burden of elder abuse around …

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The Evidence for Violence Prevention Across the Lifespan and Around the World: Workshop Summary

The Evidence for Violence Prevention Across the Lifespan and Around the World is the summary of a workshop convened in January 2013 by the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Global Violence Prevention to explore value and application of the …

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Contagion of Violence: Workshop Summary

The past 25 years have seen a major paradigm shift in the field of violence prevention, from the assumption that violence is inevitable to the recognition that violence is preventable. Part of this shift has occurred in thinking about why …

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Communications and Technology for Violence Prevention: Workshop Summary

In the last 25 years, a major shift has occurred in the field of violence prevention, from the assumption that violence is inevitable to the realization that violence is preventable. As we learn more about what works to reduce violence, the …

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Social and Economic Costs of Violence: Workshop Summary

Measuring the social and economic costs of violence can be difficult, and most estimates only consider direct economic effects, such as productivity loss or the use of health care services. Communities and societies feel the effects of violence …

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Preventing Violence Against Women and Children: Workshop Summary

Violence against women and children is a serious public health concern, with costs at multiple levels of society. Although violence is a threat to everyone, women and children are particularly susceptible to victimization because they often have …

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Protecting Forests in a Changing World

Forests cover nearly one-third of the United States, accounting for more than 1 million square miles. Because of their vital role in carbon storage, nutrient cycling, and air and water purification, as well as in supplying habitat for wildlife, maintaining forest health is essential.

Today, nonnative invasive tree pests, more virulent native pests, increases in size and frequency of wildfires, and climate changes all threaten the health of our forests. The loss of a tree species can have cascading adverse effects on ecosystems, both on the range of services it provides and the values it represents to human populations. Our publications explore challenges and opportunities to reduce the impacts of our changing world on forest health. All are free to download.

 

Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations

The American chestnut, whitebark pine, and several species of ash in the eastern United States are just a few of the North American tree species that have been functionally lost or are in jeopardy of being lost due to outbreaks of pathogens and …

[more]

A Century of Wildland Fire Research: Contributions to Long-term Approaches for Wildland Fire Management: Proceedings of a Workshop

Although ecosystems, humans, and fire have coexisted for millennia, changes in geology, ecology, hydrology, and climate as well as sociocultural, regulatory, and economic factors have converged to make wildland fire management exceptionally …

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Urban Forestry: Toward an Ecosystem Services Research Agenda: A Workshop Summary

Much of the ecological research in the past decades has focused on rural or wilderness areas. Today, however, ecological research has been taking place in our cities, where our everyday decisions can have profound effects on our environment. …

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Climate Change Education: Engaging Family Private Forest Owners on Issues Related to Climate Change: A Workshop Summary

The forested land in the United States is an asset that is owned and managed not only by federal, state, and local governments, but also by families and other private groups, including timber investment management organizations and real estate …

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Hydrologic Effects of a Changing Forest Landscape

Of all the outputs of forests, water may be the most important. Streamflow from forests provides two-thirds of the nation’s clean water supply. Removing forest cover accelerates the rate that precipitation becomes …

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Genetically Engineered Organisms, Wildlife, and Habitat: A Workshop Summary

Since the first commercial introduction of transgenic corn plants in 1995, biotechnology has provided enormous benefits to agricultural crop production. Research is underway to develop a much broader range of genetically engineered organisms …

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Valuing Ecosystem Services: Toward Better Environmental Decision-Making

Nutrient recycling, habitat for plants and animals, flood control, and water supply are among the many beneficial services provided by aquatic ecosystems. In making decisions about human activities, such as draining a wetland for a housing …

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