Category Archives: General Topics

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Advancing Science Learning: Celebrating 20 Years of the Board on Science Education

This year, the Board on Science Education (BOSE) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine celebrates 20 years of work to improve and advance STEM education through the lifespan—both in- and out- of classrooms. BOSE explores what successful STEM education looks like and how to make meaningful links across STEM disciplines so that educators create effective and engaging interdisciplinary learning experiences. These recent publications from BOSE provide guidance to develop high-quality curriculum, help prepare STEM pre-service teachers, and support the professional development of STEM educators.

Rise and Thrive with Science: Teaching PK-5 Science and Engineering

Rise and Thrive with Science: Teaching PK-5 Science and Engineering

Research shows that that children learn science and engineering subjects best by engaging from an early age in the kinds of practices used by real scientists and engineers. By doing science and engineering, children not only develop and refine their understanding of the core ideas and crosscutting concepts of these disciplines, but can also be …[more]

Science and Engineering in Preschool Through Elementary Grades: The Brilliance of Children and the Strengths of Educators

Science and Engineering in Preschool Through Elementary Grades: The Brilliance of Children and the Strengths of Educators

Starting in early childhood, children are capable of learning sophisticated science and engineering concepts and engage in disciplinary practices. They are deeply curious about the world around them and eager to investigate the many questions they have about their environment. Educators can develop learning environments that support the …[more]

Call to Action for Science Education: Building Opportunity for the Future

Call to Action for Science Education: Building Opportunity for the Future

Scientific thinking and understanding are essential for all people navigating the world, not just for scientists and other science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) professionals. Knowledge of science and the practice of scientific thinking are essential components of a fully functioning democracy. Science is also crucial for the …[more]

Cultivating Interest and Competencies in Computing: Authentic Experiences and Design Factors

Cultivating Interest and Competencies in Computing: Authentic Experiences and Design Factors

Computing in some form touches nearly every aspect of day to day life and is reflected in the ubiquitous use of cell phones, the expansion of automation into many industries, and the vast amounts of data that are routinely gathered about people’s health, education, and buying habits. Computing is now a part of nearly every occupation, not only …[more]

Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis

Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis

The COVID-19 pandemic is resulting in widespread and ongoing changes to how the K-12 education system functions, including disruptions to science teaching and learning environments. Students and teachers are all figuring out how to do schooling differently, and districts and states are working overtime to reimagine systems and processes. This …[more]

Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities

Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented unprecedented challenges to the nation’s K-12 education system. The rush to slow the spread of the virus led to closures of schools across the country, with little time to ensure continuity of instruction or to create a framework for deciding when and how to reopen schools. States, districts, and schools are …[more]

Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K-12 Education

Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K-12 Education

Engineering education is emerging as an important component of US K-12 education. Across the country, students in classrooms and after- and out-of-school programs are participating in hands-on, problem-focused learning activities using the engineering design process. These experiences can be engaging; support learning in other areas, such as …[more]

Science and Engineering for Grades 6-12: Investigation and Design at the Center

Science and Engineering for Grades 6-12: Investigation and Design at the Center

It is essential for today’s students to learn about science and engineering in order to make sense of the world around them and participate as informed members of a democratic society. The skills and ways of thinking that are developed and honed through engaging in scientific and engineering endeavors can be used to engage with evidence in …[more]

English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives

English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives

The imperative that all students, including English learners (ELs), achieve high academic standards and have opportunities to participate in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning has become even more urgent and complex given shifts in science and mathematics standards. As a group, these students are underrepresented …[more]

Learning Through Citizen Science: Enhancing Opportunities by Design

Learning Through Citizen Science: Enhancing Opportunities by Design

In the last twenty years, citizen science has blossomed as a way to engage a broad range of individuals in doing science. Citizen science projects focus on, but are not limited to, nonscientists participating in the processes of scientific research, with the intended goal of advancing and using scientific knowledge. A rich range of projects …[more]

Science Literacy: Concepts, Contexts, and Consequences

Science Literacy: Concepts, Contexts, and Consequences

Science is a way of knowing about the world. At once a process, a product, and an institution, science enables people to both engage in the construction of new knowledge as well as use information to achieve desired ends. Access to science—whether using knowledge or creating it—necessitates some level of familiarity with the enterprise and …[more]

Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom

Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom

Science educators in the United States are adapting to a new vision of how students learn science. Children are natural explorers and their observations and intuitions about the world around them are the foundation for science learning. Unfortunately, the way science has been taught in the United States has not always taken advantage of those …[more]

Resources to Explore the Role of Science and Technology in Law Enforcement

Across the United States, thousands of local, state, and federal police agencies work to safeguard communities and ensure justice. By advancing and integrating science into law enforcement policies and practice, the law enforcement community strives to provide evidence-based procedures that target perpetrators while protecting the innocent. Our reports explore critical issues at the interface of science, technology, and the law; identify structural changes needed to improve the science used by law enforcement and evaluated by the courts; and advance research-based policies.

Facial Recognition Technology: Current Capabilities, Future Prospects, and Governance

Facial Recognition Technology: Current Capabilities, Future Prospects, and Governance

Facial recognition technology is increasingly used for identity verification and identification, from aiding law enforcement investigations to identifying potential security threats at large venues. However, advances in this technology have outpaced laws and regulations, raising significant …[more]

Law Enforcement Use of Probabilistic Genotyping, Forensic DNA Phenotyping, and Forensic Investigative Genetic Genealogy Technologies: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Law Enforcement Use of Probabilistic Genotyping, Forensic DNA Phenotyping, and Forensic Investigative Genetic Genealogy Technologies: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

On March 13 and 14, 2024, the Committee on Law and Justice and the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop titled Law Enforcement Use of Probabilistic Genotyping, Forensic DNA Phenotyping, and Forensic …[more]

Location Data in the Context of Public Health, Research, and Law Enforcement: An Exploration of Governance Frameworks: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Location Data in the Context of Public Health, Research, and Law Enforcement: An Exploration of Governance Frameworks: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

On June 8-9, 2022, an ad hoc planning committee under the auspices of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Committee on Science, Technology, and Law hosted a workshop, Location Data in the Context of Public Health, Research, and Law Enforcement: An Exploration of …[more]

Identifying the Culprit: Assessing Eyewitness Identification

Identifying the Culprit: Assessing Eyewitness Identification

Identifying the Culprit: Assessing Eyewitness Identification makes the case that better data collection and research on eyewitness identification, new law enforcement training protocols, standardized procedures for administering line-ups, and improvements in the handling of eyewitness …[more]

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward

Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are …[more]

Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence: Third Edition

Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence: Third Edition

The Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, Third Edition, assists judges in managing cases involving complex scientific and technical evidence by describing the basic tenets of key scientific fields from which legal evidence is typically derived and by providing examples of cases in …[more]

Review of the Scientific Approaches Used During the FBI's Investigation of the 2001 Anthrax Letters

Review of the Scientific Approaches Used During the FBI’s Investigation of the 2001 Anthrax Letters

Less than a month after the September 11, 2001 attacks, letters containing spores of anthrax bacteria (Bacillus anthracis, or B. anthracis) were sent through the U.S. mail. Between October 4 and November 20, 2001, 22 individuals developed anthrax; 5 of the cases were fatal.

During its …[more]

Forensic Analysis: Weighing Bullet Lead Evidence

Forensic Analysis: Weighing Bullet Lead Evidence

Since the 1960s, testimony by representatives of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in thousands of criminal cases has relied on evidence from Compositional Analysis of Bullet Lead (CABL), a forensic technique that compares the elemental composition of bullets found at a crime scene to the …[more]

Preparing for a Rainier Day: Reducing Risks from Extreme Hydrologic Events

Warmer global temperatures are supercharging natural weather patterns, resulting in extreme rainfall and flooding events around the globe. The destruction from those events can cause significant economic damage, physical and emotional trauma, and even the displacement of affected communities. Our reports explore the impacts of climate change on hydrologic events and how to protect communities through improved preparation, response, and recovery. As always, they are free to read online or download.

Community-Driven Relocation: Recommendations for the U.S. Gulf Coast Region and Beyond

Community-Driven Relocation: Recommendations for the U.S. Gulf Coast Region and Beyond

Between 1980 and mid-2023, 232 billion-dollar disasters occurred in the U.S. Gulf Coast region, with the number of disasters doubling annually since 2018. The variety and frequency of storms have exacerbated historic inequalities and led to cycles of displacement and chronic stress for communities across the region. While disaster displacement …[more]

Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling

Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling

The increased frequency of extreme rainfall events, inland and coastal flooding, and other water-related stressors poses challenges to roadway infrastructure.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program’s NCHRP Synthesis 602: Resilient Design with Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Modeling documents the practices of state …[more]

Practices for Integrated Flood Prediction and Response Systems

Practices for Integrated Flood Prediction and Response Systems

State departments of transportation (DOTs) and other state and local agencies have implemented integrated flood warning and response systems to mitigate the effects of floods. These systems are critical for staging personnel, deciding when to close roads, inspecting bridges, tracking floods throughout the state, and planning recovery.

The …[more]

Investing in Transportation Resilience: A Framework for Informed Choices

Investing in Transportation Resilience: A Framework for Informed Choices

Significant progress has been made over the last decade in integrating resilience criteria into transportation decision-making. A compelling case remains for investing in making transportation projects more resilient in the face of increasing and intensifying storms, floods, droughts, and other natural hazards that are combining with sea-level …[more]

Global Change Research Needs and Opportunities for 2022-2031

Global Change Research Needs and Opportunities for 2022-2031

The US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is a collection of 13 Federal entities charged by law to assist the United States and the world to understand, assess, predict, and respond to human-induced and natural processes of global change. Global Change Research Needs and Opportunities for 2022-2031 advises the USGCRP on how best to …[more]

Emergency Alert and Warning Systems: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions

Emergency Alert and Warning Systems: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions

Following a series of natural disasters, including Hurricane Katrina, that revealed shortcomings in the nation’s ability to effectively alert populations at risk, Congress passed the Warning, Alert, and Response Network (WARN) Act in 2006. Today, new technologies such as smart phones and social media platforms offer new ways to communicate with …[more]

Framing the Challenge of Urban Flooding in the United States

Framing the Challenge of Urban Flooding in the United States

Flooding is the natural hazard with the greatest economic and social impact in the United States, and these impacts are becoming more severe over time. Catastrophic flooding from recent hurricanes, including Superstorm Sandy in New York (2012) and Hurricane Harvey in Houston (2017), caused billions of dollars in property damage, adversely …[more]

Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges

Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges

Environmental engineers support the well-being of people and the planet in areas where the two intersect. Over the decades the field has improved countless lives through innovative systems for delivering water, treating waste, and preventing and remediating pollution in air, water, and soil. These achievements are a testament to the …[more]

Attribution of Extreme Weather Events in the Context of Climate Change

Attribution of Extreme Weather Events in the Context of Climate Change

As climate has warmed over recent years, a new pattern of more frequent and more intense weather events has unfolded across the globe. Climate models simulate such changes in extreme events, and some of the reasons for the changes are well understood. Warming increases the likelihood of extremely hot days and nights, favors increased …[more]

Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts

Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts

Hurricane- and coastal-storm-related losses have increased substantially during the past century, largely due to increases in population and development in the most susceptible coastal areas. Climate change poses additional threats to coastal communities from sea level rise and possible increases in strength of the largest hurricanes. Several …[more]

Levees and the National Flood Insurance Program: Improving Policies and Practices

Levees and the National Flood Insurance Program: Improving Policies and Practices

The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration (FIMA) manages the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), which is a cornerstone in the U.S. strategy to assist communities to prepare for, mitigate against, and recover from flood disasters. The NFIP was established by Congress with passage of …[more]

Remarks of President Joe Biden — 2024 State of the Union Address As Prepared for Delivery, Annotated

Good evening.

Mr. Speaker. Madam Vice President. Members of Congress. My Fellow Americans.

In January 1941, President Franklin Roosevelt came to this chamber to speak to the nation.

He said, “I address you at a moment unprecedented in the history of the Union.”

Hitler was on the march. War was raging in Europe.

President Roosevelt’s purpose was to wake up the Congress and alert the American people that this was no ordinary moment.

Freedom and democracy were under assault in the world.

Tonight I come to the same chamber to address the nation.

Now it is we who face an unprecedented moment in the history of the Union.

And yes, my purpose tonight is to both wake up this Congress, and alert the American people that this is no ordinary moment either.

Not since President Lincoln and the Civil War have freedom and democracy been under assault here at home as they are today.

What makes our moment rare is that freedom and democracy are under attack, both at home and overseas, at the very same time.

Overseas, Putin of Russia is on the march, invading Ukraine and sowing chaos throughout Europe and beyond.

If anybody in this room thinks Putin will stop at Ukraine, I assure you, he will not.

The National Academies are committed to helping scientists, engineers, and health care workers in Ukraine and those who have been forced to flee because of the Russian invasion. Visit this link for more information on these efforts.

But Ukraine can stop Putin if we stand with Ukraine and provide the weapons it needs to defend itself. That is all Ukraine is asking. They are not asking for American soldiers.

In fact, there are no American soldiers at war in Ukraine. And I am determined to keep it that way.

But now assistance for Ukraine is being blocked by those who want us to walk away from our leadership in the world.

It wasn’t that long ago when a Republican President, Ronald Reagan, thundered, “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall.”

Now, my predecessor, a former Republican President, tells Putin, “Do whatever the hell you want.”

A former American President actually said that, bowing down to a Russian leader.

It’s outrageous. It’s dangerous. It’s unacceptable.

America is a founding member of NATO the military alliance of democratic nations created after World War II to prevent war and keep the peace.

Today, we’ve made NATO stronger than ever.

We welcomed Finland to the Alliance last year, and just this morning, Sweden officially joined NATO, and their Prime Minister is here tonight.

Mr. Prime Minister, welcome to NATO, the strongest military alliance the world has ever known.

I say this to Congress: we must stand up to Putin. Send me the Bipartisan National Security Bill.

History is watching.

If the United States walks away now, it will put Ukraine at risk.

Europe at risk. The free world at risk, emboldening others who wish to do us harm.

My message to President Putin is simple.

We will not walk away. We will not bow down. I will not bow down.

History is watching, just like history watched three years ago on January 6th.

Insurrectionists stormed this very Capitol and placed a dagger at the throat of American democracy.

Many of you were here on that darkest of days.

We all saw with our own eyes these insurrectionists were not patriots.

They had come to stop the peaceful transfer of power and to overturn the will of the people.

January 6th and the lies about the 2020 election, and the plots to steal the election, posed the gravest threat to our democracy since the Civil War.

But they failed. America stood strong and democracy prevailed.

But we must be honest the threat remains and democracy must be defended.

My predecessor and some of you here seek to bury the truth of January 6th.

I will not do that.

This is a moment to speak the truth and bury the lies.

And here’s the simplest truth. You can’t love your country only when you win.

As I’ve done ever since being elected to office, I ask you all, without regard to party, to join together and defend our democracy!

Remember your oath of office to defend against all threats foreign and domestic.

Respect free and fair elections! Restore trust in our institutions! And make clear –political violence has absolutely no place in America!

History is watching.

And history is watching another assault on freedom. 

Joining us tonight is Latorya Beasley, a social worker from Birmingham, Alabama. 14 months ago tonight, she and her husband welcomed a baby girl thanks to the miracle of IVF.

She scheduled treatments to have a second child, but the Alabama Supreme Court shut down IVF treatments across the state, unleashed by the Supreme Court decision overturning Roe v. Wade.

She was told her dream would have to wait.

What her family has gone through should never have happened. And unless Congress acts, it could happen again.

So tonight, let’s stand up for families like hers!

To my friends across the aisle, don’t keep families waiting any longer. Guarantee the right to IVF nationwide!

Like most Americans, I believe Roe v. Wade got it right. And I thank Vice President Harris for being an incredible leader, defending reproductive freedom and so much more.

But my predecessor came to office determined to see Roe v. Wade overturned.

He’s the reason it was overturned. In fact, he brags about it.

Look at the chaos that has resulted.

Joining us tonight is Kate Cox, a wife and mother from Dallas.

When she became pregnant again, the fetus had a fatal condition.

Her doctors told Kate that her own life and her ability to have children in the future were at risk if she didn’t act.

Because Texas law banned abortion, Kate and her husband had to leave the state to get the care she needed.

What her family has gone through should never have happened as well. But it is happening to so many others.

There are state laws banning the right to choose, criminalizing doctors, and forcing survivors of rape and incest to leave their states as well to get the care they need.

Physician Perspectives and Workforce Implications Following the Repeal of Roe v. Wade: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Physician Perspectives and Workforce Implications Following the Repeal of Roe v. Wade: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

The National Academies Standing Committee on Reproductive Health, Equity, and Society and the National Academy of Medicine, committed to equitable access to quality reproductive health, hosted a webinar, After Roe: Physician Perspectives and Workforce Implications, in May 2023. Discussions increased awareness and promoted dialogue in the …[more]

Challenges in the Provision of Lifesaving Care for Pregnant Patients Following the Overturn of Roe v. Wade: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Challenges in the Provision of Lifesaving Care for Pregnant Patients Following the Overturn of Roe v. Wade: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

State laws restricting abortion often contain some degree of exception to save the life of the pregnant person, but varying legal interpretations of those exceptions may create a confusing legal landscape for clinicians and lead to delays providing lifesaving treatment. The National Academies Standing Committee on Reproductive Health, Equity, …[more]

Many of you in this Chamber and my predecessor are promising to pass a national ban on reproductive freedom.

My God, what freedoms will you take away next?

In its decision to overturn Roe v. Wade the Supreme Court majority wrote, “Women are not without – electoral or political power.”

No kidding.

Clearly, those bragging about overturning Roe v. Wade have no clue about the power of women in America.

They found out though when reproductive freedom was on the ballot and won in 2022, 2023, and they will find out again, in 2024.

If Americans send me a Congress that supports the right to choose, I promise you, I will restore Roe v. Wade as the law of the land again!

America cannot go back. I am here tonight to show the way forward. Because I know how far we’ve come.

Four years ago next week, before I came to office, our country was hit by the worst pandemic and the worst economic crisis in a century.

Remember the fear. Record job losses. Remember the spike in crime. And the murder rate.

A raging virus that would take more than 1 million American lives and leave millions of loved ones behind.

A mental health crisis of isolation and loneliness.

Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older Adults: Opportunities for the Health Care System

Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older Adults: Opportunities for the Health Care System

Social isolation and loneliness are serious yet underappreciated public health risks that affect a significant portion of the older adult population. Approximately one-quarter of community-dwelling Americans aged 65 and older are considered to be socially isolated, and a significant proportion of adults in the United States report feeling …[more]

A president, my predecessor, who failed the most basic duty. Any President owes the American people the duty to care.

That is unforgivable.

I came to office determined to get us through one of the toughest periods in our nation’s history.

And we have. It doesn’t make the news but in thousands of cities and towns the American people are writing the greatest comeback story never told.

So let’s tell that story here and now.

America’s comeback is building a future of American possibilities, building an economy from the middle out and the bottom up, not the top down, investing in all of America, in all Americans to make sure everyone has a fair shot and we leave no one behind!

The pandemic no longer controls our lives. The vaccines that saved us from COVID are now being used to help beat cancer.

Innovation in Cancer Care and Cancer Research in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Proceedings of a Workshop

Innovation in Cancer Care and Cancer Research in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Proceedings of a Workshop

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to dramatic adjustments in cancer care delivery and cancer research. To examine these changes, the National Cancer Policy Forum of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a virtual workshop, Innovation in Cancer Care and Cancer Research in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic, in July …[more]

Turning setback into comeback.

That’s America!

I inherited an economy that was on the brink. Now our economy is the envy of the world!

15 million new jobs in just three years – that’s a record!

Unemployment at 50-year lows.

A record 16 million Americans are starting small businesses and each one is an act of hope.

With historic job growth and small business growth for Black, Hispanic, and Asian-Americans.

800,000 new manufacturing jobs in America and counting.

Options for a National Plan for Smart Manufacturing

Options for a National Plan for Smart Manufacturing

Smart manufacturing technologies – from advanced sensors to new computing capabilities – have the potential to greatly improve the productivity, energy efficiency, and sustainability of the U.S. manufacturing sector. Successfully implementing these technologies is essential for ensuring U.S. competitiveness and providing new job opportunities …[more]

Infusing Advanced Manufacturing into Undergraduate Engineering Education

Infusing Advanced Manufacturing into Undergraduate Engineering Education

Cutting-edge technologies are reshaping manufacturing in the United States and around the world, with applications from medicine to defense. If the United States wants to further build upon these new innovations, the next generation of engineers must be trained to work in advanced manufacturing from the undergraduate level and …[more]

Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop

Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop

A convergent manufacturing platform is defined as a system that synergistically combines heterogeneous materials and processes (e.g., additive, subtractive, and transformative) in one platform. The platform is equipped with unprecedented modularity, flexibility, connectivity, reconfigurability, portability, and customization capabilities. The …[more]

Exploiting Advanced Manufacturing Capabilities: Topology Optimization in Design: Proceedings of a Workshop

Exploiting Advanced Manufacturing Capabilities: Topology Optimization in Design: Proceedings of a Workshop

Topology optimization is a digital method for designing objects in order to achieve the best structural performance, sometimes in combination with other physical requirements. Topology optimization tools use mathematical algorithms, such as the finite element method and gradient computation, to generate designs based on desired characteristics …[more]

More people have health insurance today than ever before.

The racial wealth gap is the smallest it’s been in 20 years.

Wages keep going up and inflation keeps coming down!

Inflation has dropped from 9% to 3% – the lowest in the world!

And trending lower.

And now instead of importing foreign products and exporting American jobs, we’re exporting American products and creating American jobs – right here in America where they belong!

And the American people are beginning to feel it.

Consumer studies show consumer confidence is soaring.

Buy American has been the law of the land since the 1930s. 

Past administrations including my predecessor failed to Buy American.

Not any more.

On my watch, federal projects like helping to build American roads bridges and highways will be made with American products built by American workers creating good-paying American jobs!

Thanks to my Chips and Science Act the United States is investing more in research and development than ever before.

Visit this site for a list of excerpts from the final legislation and/or conference report which contain references to and studies for The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

During the pandemic a shortage of semiconductor chips drove up prices for everything from cell phones to automobiles. 

Well instead of having to import semiconductor chips, which America invented I might add, private companies are now investing billions of dollars to build new chip factories here in America!

Creating tens of thousands of jobs many of them paying over $100,000 a year and don’t require a college degree.

In fact my policies have attracted $650 Billion of private sector investments in clean energy and advanced manufacturing creating tens of thousands of jobs here in America!

Enhancing Federal Clean Energy Innovation: Proceedings of a Workshop

Enhancing Federal Clean Energy Innovation: Proceedings of a Workshop

A widespread and rapid transition to a low-carbon energy system by 2050 is essential to keep pace with ambitious policy goals and avoid the worst consequences of climate change. Innovation is necessary to lower costs and improve performance of existing technologies and to develop new clean energy options that address challenges in …[more]

Thanks to our Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, 46,000 new projects have been announced across your communities – modernizing our roads and bridges, ports and airports, and public transit systems.

Visit this site for a list of excerpts from the final legislation and/or conference report which contain references to and studies for The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Removing poisonous lead pipes so every child can drink clean water without risk of getting brain damage.

Providing affordable high speed internet for every American no matter where you live.

Urban, suburban, and rural communities — in red states and blue.

Record investments in tribal communities.

Because of my investments, family farms are better be able to stay in the family and children and grandchildren won’t have to leave home to make a living. 

It’s transformative.

A great comeback story is Belvidere, Illinois. Home to an auto plant for nearly 60 years. 

Before I came to office the plant was on its way to shutting down.

Thousands of workers feared for their livelihoods. Hope was fading.

Then I was elected to office and we raised Belvidere repeatedly with the auto company knowing unions make all the difference.

The UAW worked like hell to keep the plant open and get those jobs back. And together, we succeeded!

Instead of an auto factory shutting down an auto factory is re-opening and a new state-of-the art battery factory is being built to power those cars.

Instead of a town being left behind it’s a community moving forward again!

Access to Jobs, Economic Opportunities, and Education in Rural Areas

Access to Jobs, Economic Opportunities, and Education in Rural Areas

Rural areas face unique challenges in providing connectivity and access to essential goods and services, including but not limited to jobs, education, health care, and social services.

NCHRP Research Report 1059: Access to Jobs, Economic Opportunities, and Education in Rural Areas, from TRB’s National Cooperative Highway …[more]

Because instead of watching auto jobs of the future go overseas 4,000 union workers with higher wages will be building that future, in Belvidere, here in America!

Here tonight is UAW President, Shawn Fain, a great friend, and a great labor leader.

And Dawn Simms, a third generation UAW worker  in Belvidere.

Shawn, I was proud to be the first President in American history to walk a picket line.

And today Dawn has a job in her hometown providing stability for her family and pride and dignity.

Showing once again, Wall Street didn’t build this country!

The middle class built this country! And unions built the middle class!

When Americans get knocked down, we get back up!

We keep going!

That’s America! That’s you, the American people!

It’s because of you America is coming back! 

It’s because of you, our future is brighter!

And it’s because of you that tonight we can proudly say the State of our Union is strong and getting stronger! 

Tonight I want to talk about the future of possibilities that we can build together.

A future where the days of trickle-down economics are over and the wealthy and biggest corporations no longer get all the breaks.

I grew up in a home where not a lot trickled down on my Dad’s kitchen table.

That’s why I’m determined to turn things around so the middle class does well the poor have a way up and the wealthy still does well.

We all do well.

And there’s more to do to make sure you’re feeling the benefits of all we’re doing.

Americans pay more for prescription drugs than anywhere else.

Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative

Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative

Thanks to remarkable advances in modern health care attributable to science, engineering, and medicine, it is now possible to cure or manage illnesses that were long deemed untreatable. At the same time, however, the United States is facing the vexing challenge of a seemingly uncontrolled rise in the cost of health care. Total medical …[more]

U.S. Health Care Expenditures: Costs, Lessons, and Opportunities: Proceedings of a Workshop

U.S. Health Care Expenditures: Costs, Lessons, and Opportunities: Proceedings of a Workshop

The Roundtable on Population Health Improvement, a convening activity of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, held a workshop on March 15-16, 2021, to explore issues related to increasing health care spending in the United States. The workshop, U.S. Health Care Expenditures: Costs, Lessons, and Opportunities, was …[more]

It’s wrong and I’m ending it.

With a law I proposed and signed and not one Republican voted for we finally beat Big Pharma!

Instead of paying $400 a month for insulin seniors with diabetes only have to pay $35 a month!

And now I want to cap the cost of insulin at $35 a month for every American who needs it!

For years people have talked about it but I finally got it done and gave Medicare the power to negotiate lower prices for prescription drugs just like the VA does for our veterans.

That’s not just saving seniors money.

It’s saving taxpayers money cutting the federal deficit by $160 Billion because Medicare will no longer have to pay exorbitant prices to Big Pharma.

This year Medicare is negotiating lower prices for some of the costliest drugs on the market that treat everything from heart disease to arthritis.

Now it’s time to go further and give Medicare the power to negotiate lower prices for 500 drugs over the next decade.

That will not only save lives it will save taxpayers another $200 Billion!

Starting next year that same law caps total prescription drug costs for seniors on Medicare at $2,000 a year even for expensive cancer drugs that can cost $10,000, $12,000, $15,000 a year.

Now I want to cap prescription drug costs at $2,000 a year for everyone!

Folks Obamacare, known as the Affordable Care Act is still a very big deal.

Over one hundred million of you can no longer be denied health insurance because of pre-existing conditions.

But my predecessor and many in this chamber want to take that protection away by repealing the Affordable Care Act I won’t let that happen!

We stopped you 50 times before and we will stop you again!

In fact I am protecting it and expanding it.

I enacted tax credits that save $800 per person per year reducing health care premiums for millions of working families.

Those tax credits expire next year.

I want to make those savings permanent!

Women are more than half of our population but research on women’s health has always been underfunded. 

Advancing Maternal Health Equity and Reducing Maternal Morbidity and Mortality: Proceedings of a Workshop

Advancing Maternal Health Equity and Reducing Maternal Morbidity and Mortality: Proceedings of a Workshop

The United States faces an alarmingly high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, distinguishing it from other high-income countries that have achieved decreases in these rates in recent years. U.S. maternal morbidity and mortality rates are disproportionate across racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and geographic groups. Statistics on maternal …[more]

Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice

Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice

The delivery of high quality and equitable care for both mothers and newborns is complex and requires efforts across many sectors. The United States spends more on childbirth than any other country in the world, yet outcomes are worse than other high-resource countries, and even worse for Black and Native American women. There are a variety of …[more]

That’s why we’re launching the first-ever White House Initiative on Women’s Health Research, led by Jill who is doing an incredible job as First Lady.

Pass my plan for $12 Billion to transform women’s health research and benefit millions of lives across America!

I know the cost of housing is so important to you. 

If inflation keeps coming down mortgage rates will come down as well.

But I’m not waiting.

I want to provide an annual tax credit that will give Americans $400 a month for the next two years as mortgage rates come down to put toward their mortgage when they buy a first home or trade up for a little more space.

My Administration is also eliminating title insurance fees for federally backed mortgages.

When you refinance your home this can save you $1,000 or more.

For millions of renters, we’re cracking down on big landlords who break antitrust laws by price-fixing and driving up rents. 

I’ve cut red tape so more builders can get federal financing, which is already helping build a record 1.7 million housing units nationwide.

Now pass my plan to build and renovate 2 million affordable homes and bring those rents down!

To remain the strongest economy in the world we need the best education system in the world.

I want to give every child a good start by providing access to pre-school for 3- and 4-year-olds.

Rise and Thrive with Science: Teaching PK-5 Science and Engineering

Rise and Thrive with Science: Teaching PK-5 Science and Engineering

Research shows that that children learn science and engineering subjects best by engaging from an early age in the kinds of practices used by real scientists and engineers. By doing science and engineering, children not only develop and refine their understanding of the core ideas and crosscutting concepts of these disciplines, but can also be …[more]

Science and Engineering in Preschool Through Elementary Grades: The Brilliance of Children and the Strengths of Educators

Science and Engineering in Preschool Through Elementary Grades: The Brilliance of Children and the Strengths of Educators

Starting in early childhood, children are capable of learning sophisticated science and engineering concepts and engage in disciplinary practices. They are deeply curious about the world around them and eager to investigate the many questions they have about their environment. Educators can develop learning environments that support the …[more]

Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation

Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation

Children are already learning at birth, and they develop and learn at a rapid pace in their early years. This provides a critical foundation for lifelong progress, and the adults who provide for the care and the education of young children bear a great responsibility for their health, development, and learning. Despite the fact that they share …[more]

Mathematics Learning in Early Childhood: Paths Toward Excellence and Equity

Mathematics Learning in Early Childhood: Paths Toward Excellence and Equity

Early childhood mathematics is vitally important for young children’s present and future educational success. Research demonstrates that virtually all young children have the capability to learn and become competent in mathematics. Furthermore, young children enjoy their early informal experiences with mathematics. Unfortunately, many …[more]

Studies show that children who go to pre-school are nearly 50% more likely to finish high school and go on to earn a 2- or 4-year degree no matter their background.

I want to expand high-quality tutoring and summer learning time and see to it that every child learns to read by third grade.

Closing the Opportunity Gap for Young Children

Closing the Opportunity Gap for Young Children

Many young children in the United States are thriving and have access to the conditions and resources they need to grow up healthy. However, a substantial number of young children face more challenging conditions such as: poverty; food insecurity; exposure to violence; and inadequate access to health care, well-funded quality schools, and …[more]

Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth

Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth

For children and youth, summertime presents a unique break from the traditional structure, resources, and support systems that exist during the school year. For some students, this time involves opportunities to engage in fun and enriching activities and programs, while others face additional challenges as they lose a variety of supports, …[more]

Identifying and Supporting Productive STEM Programs in Out-of-School Settings

Identifying and Supporting Productive STEM Programs in Out-of-School Settings

More and more young people are learning about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in a wide variety of afterschool, summer, and informal programs. At the same time, there has been increasing awareness of the value of such programs in sparking, sustaining, and extending interest in and understanding of STEM. To help policy …[more]

Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments

Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments

Practitioners in informal science settings—museums, after-school programs, science and technology centers, media enterprises, libraries, aquariums, zoos, and botanical gardens—are interested in finding out what learning looks like, how to measure it, and what they can do to ensure that people of all ages, from different backgrounds and …[more]

I’m also connecting businesses and high schools so students get hands-on experience and a path to a good-paying job whether or not they go to college.

Understanding the Educational and Career Pathways of Engineers

Understanding the Educational and Career Pathways of Engineers

Engineering skills and knowledge are foundational to technological innovation and development that drive long-term economic growth and help solve societal challenges. Therefore, to ensure national competitiveness and quality of life it is important to understand and to continuously adapt and improve the educational and career pathways of …[more]

Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce

Building America’s Skilled Technical Workforce

Skilled technical occupations—defined as occupations that require a high level of knowledge in a technical domain but do not require a bachelor’s degree for entry—are a key component of the U.S. economy. In response to globalization and advances in science and technology, American firms are demanding workers with greater proficiency in …[more]

Opportunities for the Gulf Research Program: Middle-Skilled Workforce Needs: Summary of a Workshop

Opportunities for the Gulf Research Program: Middle-Skilled Workforce Needs: Summary of a Workshop

During the period 1990 to 2010, U.S. job growth occurred primarily in the high-skilled and low-skilled sectors. Yet, one-third of projected job growth for the period 2010-2020 will require middle-skilled workers — who will earn strong middle-class wages and salaries — important to both the production and consumption components of our …[more]

Our Year in Review: The Most Downloaded Titles of 2023

In 2023, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine continued to provide expert advice on some of the most pressing challenges facing the nation and the world, informing policy with evidence and sparking progress and innovation. This list of the most downloaded titles published last year reflects the breadth of the National Academies’ work. As always, they are free to download.

Advancing Antiracism, Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in STEMM Organizations: Beyond Broadening Participation

Advancing Antiracism, Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in STEMM Organizations: Beyond Broadening Participation

Individuals from minoritized racial and ethnic groups continue to face systemic barriers that impede their ability to access, persist, and thrive in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) higher education and …[more]

Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy

Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy

The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are a set of reference values that encompass a safe range of intake and provide recommended nutrient intakes for the United States and Canada. The DRIs for energy are used widely to provide guidance for …[more]

Using Population Descriptors in Genetics and Genomics Research: A New Framework for an Evolving Field

Using Population Descriptors in Genetics and Genomics Research: A New Framework for an Evolving Field

Genetic and genomic information has become far more accessible, and research using human genetic data has grown exponentially over the past decade. Genetics and genomics research is now being conducted by a wide range of investigators across …[more]

Laying the Foundation for New and Advanced Nuclear Reactors in the United States

Laying the Foundation for New and Advanced Nuclear Reactors in the United States

The world confronts an existential challenge in responding to climate change, resulting in an urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from all sectors of the economy. What will it take for new and advanced nuclear reactors to play a role …[more]

Accelerating Decarbonization in the United States: Technology, Policy, and Societal Dimensions

Accelerating Decarbonization in the United States: Technology, Policy, and Societal Dimensions

Addressing climate change is essential and possible, and it offers a host of benefits – from better public health to new economic opportunities. The United States has a historic opportunity to lead the way in decarbonization by transforming its …[more]

Behavioral Economics: Policy Impact and Future Directions

Behavioral Economics: Policy Impact and Future Directions

Behavioral economics – a field based in collaborations among economists and psychologists – focuses on integrating a nuanced understanding of behavior into models of decision-making. Since the mid-20th century, this growing field has produced …[more]

Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families

Addressing the Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children and Families

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on the lives of children and their families, who have faced innumerable challenges such as illness and death; school closures; social isolation; financial hardship; food insecurity; …[more]

Wastewater-based Disease Surveillance for Public Health Action

Wastewater-based Disease Surveillance for Public Health Action

The COVID-19 pandemic spurred a rapid expansion of wastewater-based infectious disease surveillance systems to monitor and anticipate disease trends in communities.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the National …[more]

An Assessment of Native Seed Needs and the Capacity for Their Supply: Final Report

An Assessment of Native Seed Needs and the Capacity for Their Supply: Final Report

Extreme weather and wildfires, intensified by climate change, are damaging the native plant communities of landscapes across the United States. Native plant communities are foundational to thriving ecosystems, delivering goods and services that …[more]

Federal Policy to Advance Racial, Ethnic, and Tribal Health Equity

Federal Policy to Advance Racial, Ethnic, and Tribal Health Equity

Racially and ethnically minoritized populations and tribal communities often face preventable inequities in health outcomes due to structural disadvantages and diminished opportunities around health care, employment, education, and more. Federal …[more]

Achieving Whole Health: A New Approach for Veterans and the Nation

Achieving Whole Health: A New Approach for Veterans and the Nation

Whole health is physical, behavioral, spiritual, and socioeconomic well-being as defined by individuals, families, and communities. Whole health care is an interprofessional, team-based approach anchored in trusted relationships …[more]

An Updated Measure of Poverty: (Re)Drawing the Line

An Updated Measure of Poverty: (Re)Drawing the Line

An accurate measure of poverty is necessary to fully understand how the economy is performing across all segments of the population and to assess the effects of government policies on communities and families. In addition, poverty statistics are …[more]

Foundational Research Gaps and Future Directions for Digital Twins

Foundational Research Gaps and Future Directions for Digital Twins

Across multiple domains of science, engineering, and medicine, excitement is growing about the potential of digital twins to transform scientific research, industrial practices, and many aspects of daily life. A digital twin couples computational …[more]

Recycled Plastics in Infrastructure: Current Practices, Understanding, and Opportunities

Recycled Plastics in Infrastructure: Current Practices, Understanding, and Opportunities

In the U.S., most plastics waste is disposed in landfills, but a significant amount also ends up as litter on land, rivers, and oceans. Today, less than 10 percent of plastics waste is recycled in the U.S. annually. The use of recycled plastics …[more]

Foundations of Data Science for Students in Grades K-12: Proceedings of a Workshop

Foundations of Data Science for Students in Grades K-12: Proceedings of a Workshop

On September 13 and 14, 2022, the Board on Science Education at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop entitled Foundations of Data Science for Students in Grades K–12. Speakers and participants explored …[more]

Reducing Intergenerational Poverty

Reducing Intergenerational Poverty

Experiencing poverty during childhood can lead to lasting harmful effects that compromise not only children’s health and welfare but can also hinder future opportunities for economic mobility, which may be passed on to future generations. This …[more]

Social Media and Adolescent Health

Social Media and Adolescent Health

Social media has been fully integrated into the lives of most adolescents in the U.S., raising concerns among parents, physicians, public health officials, and others about its effect on mental and physical health. Over the past year, an ad hoc …[more]

Closing the Opportunity Gap for Young Children

Closing the Opportunity Gap for Young Children

Many young children in the United States are thriving and have access to the conditions and resources they need to grow up healthy. However, a substantial number of young children face more challenging conditions such as: poverty; food …[more]

Nonhuman Primate Models in Biomedical Research: State of the Science and Future Needs

Nonhuman Primate Models in Biomedical Research: State of the Science and Future Needs

Nonhuman primates represent a small fraction of animals used in biomedical research, but they remain important research models due to their similarities to humans with respect to genetic makeup, anatomy, physiology, and behavior. Limitations in …[more]

The Future Pediatric Subspecialty Physician Workforce: Meeting the Needs of Infants, Children, and Adolescents

The Future Pediatric Subspecialty Physician Workforce: Meeting the Needs of Infants, Children, and Adolescents

Pediatric subspecialists are critical to ensuring quality care and pursuing research to improve prevention, diagnosis, and treatment for children. However, there are substantial disincentives to pursuing a career as a pediatric subspecialist, …[more]

Science on Interventions to Restore and Protect Coral Reefs

Coral reefs are a major global ecosystem, treasured for their beauty and the many services they provide. Millions of people and thousands of communities depend on coral reefs for fisheries, tourism, and protection from coastal storms, in addition to their cultural value. Problems such as habitat destruction, pollution, and overfishing, and climate change threaten these special ecosystems. Bleaching events, disease, and problems growing hardened reef skeletons are becoming more common. Our publications explore interventions that could enhance the persistence and resilience of coral reefs in the face of these challenges. As always, they are free to read or download.

Oil in the Sea IV: Inputs, Fates, and Effects

Oil in the Sea IV: Inputs, Fates, and Effects

Oil and natural gas represent more than 50 percent of the worldwide energy supply, with high energy demand driven by population growth and improving standards of living. Despite significant progress in reducing the amount of oil in the sea from consumption, exploration, transportation, and …[more]

Biodiversity at Risk: Today's Choices Matter

Biodiversity at Risk: Today’s Choices Matter

A growing body of evidence has sounded the alarm that the biodiversity that supports and sustains life on Earth is at risk. Habitat destruction, resource exploitation, and climate change are among the many stressors that have put 1 million species under threat of extinction and sharply reduced …[more]

A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs

A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs

Coral reefs are critical to ocean and human life because they provide food, living area, storm protection, tourism income, and more. However, human-induced stressors, such as overfishing, sediment, pollution, and habitat destruction have threatened ocean ecosystems globally for decades. In the …[more]

A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs

A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs

Coral reef declines have been recorded for all major tropical ocean basins since the 1980s, averaging approximately 30-50% reductions in reef cover globally. These losses are a result of numerous problems, including habitat destruction, pollution, overfishing, disease, and climate change. …[more]

Advancing Research on Understanding Environmental Effects of UV Filters from Sunscreens: Proceedings of a Workshop

Advancing Research on Understanding Environmental Effects of UV Filters from Sunscreens: Proceedings of a Workshop

Sunscreens and a variety of other products contain chemical ultraviolet (UV) filters that absorb or block the sun’s radiation and thereby help mitigate harms to human skin from the sun. The 2022 NASEM report Review of Fate, Exposure, and Effects of Sunscreens in Aquatic Environments and …[more]

Review of Fate, Exposure, and Effects of Sunscreens in Aquatic Environments and Implications for Sunscreen Usage and Human Health

Review of Fate, Exposure, and Effects of Sunscreens in Aquatic Environments and Implications for Sunscreen Usage and Human Health

Regular use of sunscreens has been shown to reduce the risk of sunburn and skin cancer, and slow photoaging of skin. Sunscreens can rinse off into water where people are swimming or wading, and can also enter bodies of water through wastewater such as from bathing or showering. As a result, the …[more]

Reckoning with the U.S. Role in Global Ocean Plastic Waste

Reckoning with the U.S. Role in Global Ocean Plastic Waste

An estimated 8 million metric tons (MMT) of plastic waste enters the world’s ocean each year – the equivalent of dumping a garbage truck of plastic waste into the ocean every minute. Plastic waste is now found in almost every marine habitat, from the ocean surface to deep sea sediments to the …[more]

Effective Monitoring to Evaluate Ecological Restoration in the Gulf of Mexico

Effective Monitoring to Evaluate Ecological Restoration in the Gulf of Mexico

Gulf Coast communities and natural resources suffered extensive direct and indirect damage as a result of the largest accidental oil spill in US history, referred to as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Notably, natural resources affected by this major spill include wetlands, coastal …[more]

The Future of Treatment and Support for Dementia and Related Diseases

As the largest generation in U.S. history – the population born in the two decades following World War II – enters the age of risk for cognitive impairment, growing numbers of people will experience dementia (including Alzheimer’s and related diseases). By one estimate, nearly 14 million people in the United States will be living with dementia by 2060. As our understanding of these conditions improves, new treatments may slow the progress of dementia and reduce its social and economic impacts. Our publications offer roadmaps for research that addresses the causes of dementia and that improve treatment and support, for both people living with dementia and those who support them. As always, all are free to read online or download.

Reducing the Impact of Dementia in America: A Decadal Survey of the Behavioral and Social Sciences

Reducing the Impact of Dementia in America: A Decadal Survey of the Behavioral and Social Sciences

As the largest generation in U.S. history – the population born in the two decades immediately following World War II – enters the age of risk for cognitive impairment, growing numbers of people will experience dementia (including Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias). By one estimate, …[more]

The National Imperative to Improve Nursing Home Quality: Honoring Our Commitment to Residents, Families, and Staff

The National Imperative to Improve Nursing Home Quality: Honoring Our Commitment to Residents, Families, and Staff

Nursing homes play a unique dual role in the long-term care continuum, serving as a place where people receive needed health care and a place they call home. Ineffective responses to the complex challenges of nursing home care have resulted in a system that often fails to ensure the well-being …[more]

Mechanisms for Organizational Behavior Change to Address the Needs of People Living with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias: Proceedings of a Workshop

Mechanisms for Organizational Behavior Change to Address the Needs of People Living with Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias: Proceedings of a Workshop

Patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) rely on family members, their community, and the health care system for progressively increasing support over the course of their disease. These people receive care through a frequently siloed health care system across …[more]

Implications for Behavioral and Social Research of Preclinical Markers of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Implications for Behavioral and Social Research of Preclinical Markers of Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

On June 28-29, 2021, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a virtual workshop, “Behavioral and Social Research and Clinical Practice Implications of Biomarkers and Other Preclinical Diagnostics of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and AD-Related Dementias” (AD/ADRD). The …[more]

Meeting the Challenge of Caring for Persons Living with Dementia and Their Care Partners and Caregivers: A Way Forward

Meeting the Challenge of Caring for Persons Living with Dementia and Their Care Partners and Caregivers: A Way Forward

Millions of people are living with dementia in the United States and globally. To live well with dementia, people need care, services, and supports that reflect their values and preferences, build on their strengths and abilities, promote well-being, and address needs that evolve as cognitive …[more]

Understanding Nursing Home, Hospice, and Palliative Care for Individuals with Later-Stage Dementia: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Understanding Nursing Home, Hospice, and Palliative Care for Individuals with Later-Stage Dementia: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

On July 7, 2020, the Committee on Developing a Behavioral and Social Science Research Agenda on Alzheimer’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Dementias hosted a public workshop via webcast. This Proceedings of a Workshop-in Brief summarizes the key points made by the workshop participants …[more]

Quality of Life, Preventing Elder Abuse, and Fostering Living Well After a Dementia Diagnosis: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Quality of Life, Preventing Elder Abuse, and Fostering Living Well After a Dementia Diagnosis: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

On July 8, 2020, the Committee on Developing a Behavioral and Social Science Research Agenda on Alzheimer’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Dementias hosted a public workshop via webcast. This Proceedings of a Workshop-in Brief summarizes the key points made by the workshop participants …[more]

Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias: Experience and Caregiving, Epidemiology, and Models of Care: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias: Experience and Caregiving, Epidemiology, and Models of Care: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

On August 14, 2019, the Committee on Developing a Behavioral and Social Science Research Agenda on Alzheimer’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Dementias convened a public workshop in Washington, D.C., as part of the study “Developing a Behavioral and Social Science Research Agenda on …[more]

Considerations for the Design of a Systematic Review of Care Interventions for Individuals with Dementia and Their Caregivers: Letter Report

Considerations for the Design of a Systematic Review of Care Interventions for Individuals with Dementia and Their Caregivers: Letter Report

Considerations for the Design of a Systematic Review of Care Interventions for Individuals with Dementia and Their Caregivers: Letter Report provides input into the design of an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) systematic review of evidence on effective care-related …[more]

Preventing Cognitive Decline and Dementia: A Way Forward

Preventing Cognitive Decline and Dementia: A Way Forward

Societies around the world are concerned about dementia and the other forms of cognitive impairment that affect many older adults. We now know that brain changes typically begin years before people show symptoms, which suggests a window of opportunity to prevent or delay the onset of these …[more]

Families Caring for an Aging America

Families Caring for an Aging America

Family caregiving affects millions of Americans every day, in all walks of life. At least 17.7 million individuals in the United States are caregivers of an older adult with a health or functional limitation. The nation’s family caregivers provide the lion’s share of long-term care for our older …[more]

The Vital Role of the Chemical Sciences

Chemists create life-saving pharmaceuticals, develop energy solutions, improve agricultural productivity, and produce novel materials used in a wide array of products, from cookware to clothing to electronic devices. These recent publications from the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology address the vital role of the chemical sciences in solving environmental problems, making contributions to the U.S. economy, and promoting chemistry education to develop tomorrow’s chemical scientists.

Advancing Chemistry and Quantum Information Science: An Assessment of Research Opportunities at the Interface of Chemistry and Quantum Information Science in the United States

Advancing Chemistry and Quantum Information Science: An Assessment of Research Opportunities at the Interface of Chemistry and Quantum Information Science in the United States

The field of quantum information science (QIS) has witnessed a dramatic rise in scientific research activities in the 21st century as excitement has grown about its potential to revolutionize communications and computing, strengthen encryption, and enhance quantum sensing, among other …[more]

The Importance of Chemical Research to the U.S. Economy

The Importance of Chemical Research to the U.S. Economy

Chemistry plays a pivotal role in the strength of the U.S. economy and the advancement of humankind. Chemists’ achievements include life-saving pharmaceuticals, advanced energy solutions, improved agricultural productivity, and novel materials used in products from clothing to electronic …[more]

The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface

The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface

Wildfires in America are becoming larger, more frequent, and more destructive, driven by climate change and existing land management practices. Many of these fires occur at the wildland-urban interface (WUI), areas where development and wildland areas overlap and which are increasingly at risk …[more]

New Directions for Chemical Engineering

New Directions for Chemical Engineering

Over the past century, the work of chemical engineers has helped transform societies and the lives of individuals, from the synthetic fertilizers that helped feed the world to the development of novel materials used in fuels, electronics, medical devices, and other products. Chemical engineers’ …[more]

Why Indoor Chemistry Matters

Why Indoor Chemistry Matters

People spend the vast majority of their time inside their homes and other indoor environments where they are exposed to a wide range of chemicals from building materials, furnishings, occupants, cooking, consumer products, and other sources. Despite research to date, very little is known about …[more]

Innovations in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing on the Horizon: Technical Challenges, Regulatory Issues, and Recommendations

Innovations in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing on the Horizon: Technical Challenges, Regulatory Issues, and Recommendations

In 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) launched the Pharmaceutical Quality for the 21st Century Initiative to encourage adoption of innovative technologies that would lead to an agile, flexible pharmaceutical manufacturing sector. The goal was to encourage a transition to …[more]

A Research Agenda for Transforming Separation Science

A Research Agenda for Transforming Separation Science

Separation science plays a critical role in maintaining our standard of living and quality of life. Many industrial processes and general necessities such as chemicals, medicines, clean water, safe food, and energy sources rely on chemical separations. However, the process of chemical …[more]

Finding Phosphorous on Enceladus and the Search for Life

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

This week, an international team of scientists announced their discovery of phosphorus, a key chemical element for many biological processes, in icy grains emitted by Saturn’s moon Enceladus. Scientists had previously found that Enceladus’ ocean is rich in a variety of organic compounds. This new result marks the first time that this essential element has been discovered in an ocean beyond Earth. Our titles highlight key science questions, identify priority missions, and present research strategies to continue the search for life in our own solar system and beyond. As always, they are free to read online or download.

Origins, Worlds, and Life: A Decadal Strategy for Planetary Science and Astrobiology 2023-2032

Origins, Worlds, and Life: A Decadal Strategy for Planetary Science and Astrobiology 2023-2032

The next decade of planetary science and astrobiology holds tremendous promise. New research will expand our understanding of our solar system’s origins, how planets form and evolve, under what conditions life can survive, and where to find potentially habitable environments in our solar system and beyond. Origins, Worlds, and Life: A Decadal …[more]

An Astrobiology Strategy for the Search for Life in the Universe

An Astrobiology Strategy for the Search for Life in the Universe

Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. It is an inherently interdisciplinary field that encompasses astronomy, biology, geology, heliophysics, and planetary science, including complementary laboratory activities and field studies conducted in a wide range of terrestrial …[more]

Exoplanet Science Strategy

Exoplanet Science Strategy

The past decade has delivered remarkable discoveries in the study of exoplanets. Hand-in-hand with these advances, a theoretical understanding of the myriad of processes that dictate the formation and evolution of planets has matured, spurred on by the avalanche of unexpected discoveries. Appreciation of the factors that make a planet …[more]

Searching for Life Across Space and Time: Proceedings of a Workshop

Searching for Life Across Space and Time: Proceedings of a Workshop

The search for life is one of the most active fields in space science and involves a wide variety of scientific disciplines, including planetary science, astronomy and astrophysics, chemistry, biology, chemistry, and geoscience. In December 2016, the Space Studies Board hosted a workshop to explore the possibility of habitable environments in …[more]

Astrochemistry: Discoveries to Inform the Chemical Sciences and Engineering Communities: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Astrochemistry: Discoveries to Inform the Chemical Sciences and Engineering Communities: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Throughout much of human history, space was thought to be a void in which only ions or radicals existed. It was only in the last half of the 20th century that scientists began to discover the existence of molecules, such as ammonia, in space. Discovery has accelerated in the last decade with the installation of new facilities and cutting-edge …[more]

Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process

Extending Science: NASA’s Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process

NASA operates a large number of space science missions, approximately three-quarters of which are currently in their extended operations phase. They represent not only a majority of operational space science missions, but a substantial national investment and vital national assets. They are tremendously scientifically productive, making many of …[more]

Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Spacecraft Missions to Icy Solar System Bodies

Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Spacecraft Missions to Icy Solar System Bodies

NASA’s exploration of planets and satellites during the past 50 years has led to the discovery of traces of water ice throughout the solar system and prospects for large liquid water reservoirs beneath the frozen ICE shells of multiple satellites of the giant planets of the outer solar system. During the coming decades, NASA and other space …[more]

Life in the Universe: An Assessment of U.S. and International Programs in Astrobiology

Life in the Universe: An Assessment of U.S. and International Programs in Astrobiology

The past decade has seen a remarkable revolution in genomic research, the discoveries of extreme environments in which organisms can live and even flourish on Earth, the identification of past and possibly present liquid-water environments in our solar system, and the detection of planets around other stars. Together these accomplishments bring …[more]

Resources to Strengthen and Support the Healthcare Workforce

Patient-centered, high-quality health care relies on the well-being, health, and safety of health care clinicians. Our publications explore the wide array of settings and practice of the healthcare workforce and provide guidance on workplace policies and programs that support these essential workers. All are free to read online or download.

National Plan for Health Workforce Well-Being

National Plan for Health Workforce Well-Being [more]

The National Imperative to Improve Nursing Home Quality: Honoring Our Commitment to Residents, Families, and Staff

The National Imperative to Improve Nursing Home Quality: Honoring Our Commitment to Residents, Families, and Staff

Nursing homes play a unique dual role in the long-term care continuum, serving as a place where people receive needed health care and a place they call home. Ineffective responses to the complex challenges of nursing home care have resulted in a system that often fails to ensure the well-being and safety of nursing home residents. The …[more]

Understanding the Aging Workforce: Defining a Research Agenda

Understanding the Aging Workforce: Defining a Research Agenda

The aging population of the United States has significant implications for the workforce – challenging what it means to work and to retire in the U.S. In fact, by 2030, one-fifth of the population will be over age 65. This shift has significant repercussions for the economy and key social programs. Due to medical advancements and public health …[more]

The Future of Nursing 2020-2030: Charting a Path to Achieve Health Equity

The Future of Nursing 2020-2030: Charting a Path to Achieve Health Equity

The decade ahead will test the nation’s nearly 4 million nurses in new and complex ways. Nurses live and work at the intersection of health, education, and communities. Nurses work in a wide array of settings and practice at a range of professional levels. They are often the first and most frequent line of contact with people of all backgrounds …[more]

Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?

Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?

Headlines frequently appear that purport to highlight the differences among workers of different generations and explain how employers can manage the wants and needs of each generation. But is each new generation really that different from previous ones? Are there fundamental differences among generations that impact how they act and interact …[more]

Taking Action Against Clinician Burnout: A Systems Approach to Professional Well-Being

Taking Action Against Clinician Burnout: A Systems Approach to Professional Well-Being

Patient-centered, high-quality health care relies on the well-being, health, and safety of health care clinicians. However, alarmingly high rates of clinician burnout in the United States are detrimental to the quality of care being provided, harmful to individuals in the workforce, and costly. It is important to take a systemic approach to …[more]

A Framework for Educating Health Professionals to Address the Social Determinants of Health

A Framework for Educating Health Professionals to Address the Social Determinants of Health

The World Health Organization defines the social determinants of health as “the conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live, and age, and the wider set of forces and systems shaping the conditions of daily life.” These forces and systems include economic policies, development agendas, cultural and social norms, social policies, and …[more]

Graduate Medical Education That Meets the Nation's Health Needs

Graduate Medical Education That Meets the Nation’s Health Needs

Today’s physician education system produces trained doctors with strong scientific underpinnings in biological and physical sciences as well as supervised practical experience in delivering care. Significant financial public support underlies the graduate-level training of the nation’s physicians. Two federal programs—Medicare and …[more]

Resident Duty Hours: Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and Safety

Resident Duty Hours: Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and Safety

Medical residents in hospitals are often required to be on duty for long hours. In 2003 the organization overseeing graduate medical education adopted common program requirements to restrict resident workweeks, including limits to an average of 80 hours over 4 weeks and the longest consecutive period of work to 30 hours in order to protect …[more]