Category Archives: General Topics

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Revealing the Mysteries of Our Solar System

Photo credit: NASA

On January 3, a Chinese spacecraft made the first-ever landing on the far side of the moon. This milestone has the potential to help us understand more about our solar system and the universe beyond. Our reports provide an independent, authoritative forum for information and advice on all aspects of space science. All are free to download.

Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society

From the interior of the Sun, to the upper atmosphere and near-space environment of Earth, and outward to a region far beyond Pluto where the Sun’s influence wanes, advances during the past decade in space physics and solar physics–the …

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Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Spacecraft Missions to Icy Solar System Bodies

NASA’s exploration of planets and satellites during the past 50 years has led to the discovery of traces of water ice throughout the solar system and prospects for large liquid water reservoirs beneath the frozen ICE shells of multiple satellites …

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Review and Assessment of Planetary Protection Policy Development Processes

Protecting Earth’s environment and other solar system bodies from harmful contamination has been an important principle throughout the history of space exploration. For decades, the scientific, political, and economic conditions of space …

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Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022

In recent years, planetary science has seen a tremendous growth in new knowledge. Deposits of water ice exist at the Moon’s poles. Discoveries on the surface of Mars point to an early warm wet climate, and perhaps conditions under which life …

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Visions into Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022: A Midterm Review

In spring 2011 the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine produced a report outlining the next decade in planetary sciences. That report, titled Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022, and …

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Exoplanet Science Strategy

The past decade has delivered remarkable discoveries in the study of exoplanets. Hand-in-hand with these advances, a theoretical understanding of the myriad of processes that dictate the formation and evolution of planets has matured, spurred on …

[more]

An Astrobiology Strategy for the Search for Life in the Universe

Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. It is an inherently interdisciplinary field that encompasses astronomy, biology, geology, heliophysics, and planetary science, including …

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Searching for Life Across Space and Time: Proceedings of a Workshop

The search for life is one of the most active fields in space science and involves a wide variety of scientific disciplines, including planetary science, astronomy and astrophysics, chemistry, biology, chemistry, and geoscience. In December 2016, …

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25 Year Decline of Cancer Death Rate – What is the Future of Cancer Research, Diagnosis and Treatment?

On Tuesday, the American Cancer Society reported that cancer rates steadily declined between 1991 and 2016. Steady reductions in smoking and advances in early detection and treatment play a significant role in this achievement. The figure above illustrates the trends in cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States over this time period. What can we do to ensure this trend continues? Our reports provide guidance to further cancer research and improve patient diagnosis and treatment. All are free to download.

Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity

In the United States, some populations suffer from far greater disparities in health than others. Those disparities are caused not only by fundamental differences in health status across segments of the population, but also because of inequities …

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Improving Diagnosis in Health Care

Getting the right diagnosis is a key aspect of health care – it provides an explanation of a patient’s health problem and informs subsequent health care decisions. The diagnostic process is a complex, collaborative activity that involves clinical …

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Ovarian Cancers: Evolving Paradigms in Research and Care

In an era of promising advances in cancer research, there are considerable and even alarming gaps in the fundamental knowledge and understanding of ovarian cancer. Researchers now know that ovarian cancer is not a single disease–several distinct …

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Cancer Care in Low-Resource Areas: Cancer Treatment, Palliative Care, and Survivorship Care: Proceedings of a Workshop

Though cancer was once considered to be a problem primarily in wealthy nations, low- and middle-income countries now bear a majority share of the global cancer burden, and cancer often surpasses the burden of infectious diseases in these …

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Long-Term Survivorship Care After Cancer Treatment: Proceedings of a Workshop

The 2006 Institute of Medicine (IOM) consensus study report From Cancer Patient to Cancer Survivor: Lost in Transition made recommendations to improve the quality of care that cancer survivors receive, in recognition that cancer survivors …

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Incorporating Weight Management and Physical Activity Throughout the Cancer Care Continuum: Proceedings of a Workshop

The National Cancer Policy Forum of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a public workshop, Incorporating Weight Management and Physical Activity Throughout the Cancer Care Continuum, on February 13 and 14, 2017, in …

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Improving Cancer Diagnosis and Care: Patient Access to Oncologic Imaging and Pathology Expertise and Technologies: Proceedings of a Workshop

Rapid advances in cancer research, the development of new and more sophisticated approaches to diagnostic testing, and the growth in targeted cancer therapies are transforming the landscape of cancer diagnosis and care. These innovations have …

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Delivering High-Quality Cancer Care: Charting a New Course for a System in Crisis

In the United States, approximately 14 million people have had cancer and more than 1.6 million new cases are diagnosed each year. However, more than a decade after the Institute of Medicine (IOM) first studied the quality of cancer care, the …

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2018 in Review – The 18 Most Downloaded Titles

In 2018, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine continued to provide expert advice on some of the most pressing challenges facing the nation and the world. This list of the most downloaded titles published last year reflects the breadth of the National Academies’ work. As always, they are free to download.

 

How People Learn II: Learners, Contexts, and Cultures

There are many reasons to be curious about the way people learn, and the past several decades have seen an explosion of research that has important implications for individual learning, schooling, workforce training, and policy.

In 2000, …

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Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Over the last few decades, research, activity, and funding has been devoted to improving the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in the fields of science, engineering, and medicine. In recent years the diversity of those …

[more]

Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes

Millions of Americans use e-cigarettes. Despite their popularity, little is known about their health effects. Some suggest that e-cigarettes likely confer lower risk compared to combustible tobacco cigarettes, because they do not expose users to …

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Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century

The U.S. system of graduate education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has served the nation and its science and engineering enterprise extremely well. Over the course of their education, graduate students become …

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The Integration of the Humanities and Arts with Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in Higher Education: Branches from the Same Tree

In the United States, broad study in an array of different disciplines —arts, humanities, science, mathematics, engineering— as well as an in-depth study within a special area of interest, have been defining characteristics of a higher …

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Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space

We live on a dynamic Earth shaped by both natural processes and the impacts of humans on their environment. It is in our collective interest to observe and understand our planet, and to predict future behavior to the extent possible, in order to …

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Data Science for Undergraduates: Opportunities and Options

Data science is emerging as a field that is revolutionizing science and industries alike. Work across nearly all domains is becoming more data driven, affecting both the jobs that are available and the skills that are required. As more data and …

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Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research

Openness and sharing of information are fundamental to the progress of science and to the effective functioning of the research enterprise. The advent of scientific journals in the 17th century helped power the Scientific Revolution by allowing …

[more]

Biodefense in the Age of Synthetic Biology

Scientific advances over the past several decades have accelerated the ability to engineer existing organisms and to potentially create novel ones not found in nature. Synthetic biology, which collectively refers to concepts, approaches, and …

[more]

Science Breakthroughs to Advance Food and Agricultural Research by 2030

For nearly a century, scientific advances have fueled progress in U.S. agriculture to enable American producers to deliver safe and abundant food domestically and provide a trade surplus in bulk and high-value agricultural commodities and foods. …

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Broadening Understanding of the Interplay Among Public Transit, Shared Mobility, and Personal Automobiles

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Research Report 195: Broadening Understanding of the Interplay Among Public Transit, Shared Mobility, and Personal Automobiles explores the effects of app-based transportation network companies on …

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Review of the Draft Fourth National Climate Assessment

Climate change poses many challenges that affect society and the natural world. With these challenges, however, come opportunities to respond. By taking steps to adapt to and mitigate climate change, the risks to society and the impacts of …

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Quantum Computing: Progress and Prospects

Quantum mechanics, the subfield of physics that describes the behavior of very small (quantum) particles, provides the basis for a new paradigm of computing. First proposed in the 1980s as a way to improve computational modeling of quantum …

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English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives

The imperative that all students, including English learners (ELs), achieve high academic standards and have opportunities to participate in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning has become even more urgent and complex …

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Crossing the Global Quality Chasm: Improving Health Care Worldwide

In 2015, building on the advances of the Millennium Development Goals, the United Nations adopted Sustainable Development Goals that include an explicit commitment to achieve universal health coverage by 2030. However, enormous gaps remain …

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Exoplanet Science Strategy

The past decade has delivered remarkable discoveries in the study of exoplanets. Hand-in-hand with these advances, a theoretical understanding of the myriad of processes that dictate the formation and evolution of planets has matured, spurred on …

[more]

Learning Through Citizen Science: Enhancing Opportunities by Design

In the last twenty years, citizen science has blossomed as a way to engage a broad range of individuals in doing science. Citizen science projects focus on, but are not limited to, nonscientists participating in the processes of scientific …

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Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges

Environmental engineers support the well-being of people and the planet in areas where the two intersect. Over the decades the field has improved countless lives through innovative systems for delivering water, treating waste, and preventing and …

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Resources on the Road to Improving the Nation’s Highways

The Interstate Highway System connects and integrates the transcontinental United States and has been pivotal for more than 50 years in shaping and supporting the country’s demographic, spatial, economic, and social development.

This system’s future is threatened by a persistent and growing backlog of physical and operational deficiencies and by a number of other challenges. Our reports explore solutions to improve highway systems and best practices for maintenance. All are free to download.

Renewing the National Commitment to the Interstate Highway System: A Foundation for the Future

TRB Special Report 329: Renewing the National Commitment to the Interstate Highway System: A Foundation for the Future explores pending and future federal investment and policy decisions concerning the federal Interstate Highway System. Congress …

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Consequences of Delayed Maintenance of Highway Assets

TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 859: Consequences of Delayed Maintenance of Highway Assets presents a process for quantifying the consequences of delayed maintenance of highway assets that considers the …

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Life-Cycle Cost Analysis for Management of Highway Assets

TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 494: Life-Cycle Cost Analysis for Management of Highway Assets documents the state of the practice of life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) and risk-based analysis into state highway …

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Effective Project Scoping Practices to Improve On-Time and On-Budget Delivery of Highway Projects

TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 821: Effective Project Scoping Practices to Improve On-Time and On-Budget Delivery of Highway Projects demonstrates how a state department of transportation (state DOT) can …

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Practices for Establishing Contract Completion Dates for Highway Projects

TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 502: Practices for Establishing Contract Completion Dates for Highway Projects documents current methodologies and procedures used by state transportation agencies to estimate …

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Using the Economic Value Created by Transportation to Fund Transportation

TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 459: Using the Economic Value Created by Transportation to Fund Transportation presents information on financing mechanisms used by transportation agencies to capture a …

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What Happens in the Arctic Doesn’t Stay in the Arctic

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association’s 2018 Arctic Report Card shows that the Arctic experienced the second-warmest air temperatures ever recorded; the second-lowest overall sea-ice coverage; the lowest recorded winter ice in the Bering Sea; and earlier plankton blooms due to early melting of sea ice in the Bering Sea. Our reports explore the environmental impacts of changes in the Arctic on the rest of the world and set an agenda for further research to develop a better understand of the vulnerabilities and opportunities of this unique region. All are free to download.

The Arctic in the Anthropocene: Emerging Research Questions

Once ice-bound, difficult to access, and largely ignored by the rest of the world, the Arctic is now front and center in the midst of many important questions facing the world today. Our daily weather, what we eat, and coastal flooding are all …

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Arctic Matters: The Global Connection to Changes in the Arctic

Viewed in satellite images as a jagged white coat draped over the top of the globe, the high Arctic appears distant and isolated. But even if you don’t live there, don’t do business there, and will never travel there, you are closer to the Arctic …

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Linkages Between Arctic Warming and Mid-Latitude Weather Patterns: Summary of a Workshop

The Arctic has been undergoing significant changes in recent years. Average temperatures are rising twice as fast as they are elsewhere in the world. The extent and thickness of sea ice is rapidly declining. Such changes may have an impact on …

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Responding to Oil Spills in the U.S. Arctic Marine Environment

U.S. Arctic waters north of the Bering Strait and west of the Canadian border encompass a vast area that is usually ice covered for much of the year, but is increasingly experiencing longer periods and larger areas of open water due to climate …

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Seasonal to Decadal Predictions of Arctic Sea Ice: Challenges and Strategies

Recent well documented reductions in the thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice cover, which can be linked to the warming climate, are affecting the global climate system and are also affecting the global economic system as marine access to the …

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Opportunities to Use Remote Sensing in Understanding Permafrost and Related Ecological Characteristics: Report of a Workshop

Permafrost is a thermal condition — its formation, persistence and disappearance are highly dependent on climate. General circulation models predict that, for a doubling of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, mean annual air …

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Acquisition and Operation of Polar Icebreakers: Fulfilling the Nation’s Needs

On July 11, 2017, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Committee on Polar Icebreaker Cost Assessment released a letter report that advises the U.S. Congress on strategies to minimize life-cycle costs of polar icebreaker …

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Scientific Research Responsibilities

Ongoing globalization, technological advances, and other shifts are transforming the research enterprise. The publications below explore emerging issues in the management and use of research data, and address policies and practices that can impact research outcomes, promote scientific discovery, and support the support the career trajectory of scientists. All books are free to read online or download.

Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop

Continuing rapid developments in the life sciences offer the promise of providing tools to meet global challenges in health, agriculture, the environment, and economic development; some of the benefits are already being realized. However, such …

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Fostering Integrity in Research

The integrity of knowledge that emerges from research is based on individual and collective adherence to core values of objectivity, honesty, openness, fairness, accountability, and stewardship. Integrity in science means that the organizations …

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Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research

Openness and sharing of information are fundamental to the progress of science and to the effective functioning of the research enterprise. The advent of scientific journals in the 17th century helped power the Scientific Revolution by allowing …

[more]

Dual Use Research of Concern in the Life Sciences: Current Issues and Controversies

The potential misuse of advances in life sciences research is raising concerns about national security threats. Dual Use Research of Concern in the Life Sciences: Current Issues and Controversies examines the U.S. strategy for reducing …

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Returning Individual Research Results to Participants: Guidance for a New Research Paradigm

When is it appropriate to return individual research results to participants? The immense interest in this question has been fostered by the growing movement toward greater transparency and participant engagement in the research enterprise. Yet, …

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Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Over the last few decades, research, activity, and funding has been devoted to improving the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in the fields of science, engineering, and medicine. In recent years the diversity of those …

[more]

Biodefense in the Age of Synthetic Biology

Scientific advances over the past several decades have accelerated the ability to engineer existing organisms and to potentially create novel ones not found in nature. Synthetic biology, which collectively refers to concepts, approaches, and …

[more]

Emerging and Readily Available Technologies and National Security: A Framework for Addressing Ethical, Legal, and Societal Issues

Emerging and Readily Available Technologies and National Security is a study on the ethical, legal, and societal issues relating to the research on, development of, and use of rapidly changing technologies with low barriers of entry that …

[more]

On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research, Second Edition

Since the first edition of On Being a Scientist was published in 1989, more than 200,000 copies have been distributed to graduate and undergraduate science students. Now this well-received booklet has been updated to incorporate the …

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Proposed Revisions to the Common Rule for the Protection of Human Subjects in the Behavioral and Social Sciences

Proposed Revisions to the Common Rule for the Protection of Human Subjects in the Behavioral and Social Sciences examines how to update human subjects protections regulations so that they effectively respond to current research contexts …

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Balancing Scientific Discovery and Security: The Dual Use Dilemma

Continuing rapid advances in science and technology have the potential to challenge the oversight systems for responsible conduct of life sciences research with dual use potential – research that may have beneficial applications but that also could be misused to cause harm. Our reports explore the implications and consequences of these technological advances. All are free to read online or download.

Biodefense in the Age of Synthetic Biology

Scientific advances over the past several decades have accelerated the ability to engineer existing organisms and to potentially create novel ones not found in nature. Synthetic biology, which collectively refers to concepts, approaches, and …

[more]

Dual Use Research of Concern in the Life Sciences: Current Issues and Controversies

The potential misuse of advances in life sciences research is raising concerns about national security threats. Dual Use Research of Concern in the Life Sciences: Current Issues and Controversies examines the U.S. strategy for reducing …

[more]

Human Genome Editing: Science, Ethics, and Governance

Genome editing is a powerful new tool for making precise alterations to an organism’s genetic material. Recent scientific advances have made genome editing more efficient, precise, and flexible than ever before. These advances have spurred an …

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Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values

Research on gene drive systems is rapidly advancing. Many proposed applications of gene drive research aim to solve environmental and public health challenges, including the reduction of poverty and the burden of vector-borne diseases, such as …

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Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of a Workshop

On October 17, 2014, spurred by incidents at U.S. government laboratories that raised serious biosafety concerns, the United States government launched a one-year deliberative process to address the continuing controversy surrounding so-called …

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Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016

On March 10-11, 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a public symposium on potential U.S. government policies for the oversight of gain-of- function (GOF) research. This was the Academies’ second meeting held …

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Emerging and Readily Available Technologies and National Security: A Framework for Addressing Ethical, Legal, and Societal Issues

Emerging and Readily Available Technologies and National Security is a study on the ethical, legal, and societal issues relating to the research on, development of, and use of rapidly changing technologies with low barriers of entry that …

[more]

Perspectives on Research with H5N1 Avian Influenza: Scientific Inquiry, Communication, Controversy: Summary of a Workshop

When, in late 2011, it became public knowledge that two research groups had submitted for publication manuscripts that reported on their work on mammalian transmissibility of a lethal H5N1 avian influenza strain, the information caused an …

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Sharing Science to Promote Discovery

Last week, an international team of scientists identified an impact crater in Greenland using data from NASA’s IceBridge Project. Our recent report, Open Science by Design, explores opportunities and challenges in making research freely available and usable. It’s free to download, along with the other related titles below.

Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research

Openness and sharing of information are fundamental to the progress of science and to the effective functioning of the research enterprise. The advent of scientific journals in the 17th century helped power the Scientific Revolution by allowing …

[more]

The Future of Scientific Knowledge Discovery in Open Networked Environments: Summary of a Workshop

Digital technologies and networks are now part of everyday work in the sciences, and have enhanced access to and use of scientific data, information, and literature significantly. They offer the promise of accelerating the discovery and …

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Sharing Clinical Research Data: Workshop Summary

Pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers, and government agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of Health all possess large quantities of clinical research data. If these data were shared more widely …

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The Case for International Sharing of Scientific Data: A Focus on Developing Countries: Proceedings of a Symposium

The theme of this international symposium is the promotion of greater sharing of scientific data for the benefit of research and broader development, particularly in the developing world. This is an extraordinarily important topic. Indeed, I have …

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Principles and Obstacles for Sharing Data from Environmental Health Research: Workshop Summary

On March 19, 2014, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop on the topic of the sharing of data from environmental health research. Experts in the field of environmental health agree that there are benefits to …

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Discussion Framework for Clinical Trial Data Sharing: Guiding Principles, Elements, and Activities

Sharing data generated through the conduct of clinical trials offers the promise of placing evidence about the safety and efficacy of therapies and clinical interventions on a firmer basis and enhancing the benefits of clinical trials. …

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Using Data Sharing to Improve Coordination in Peacebuilding: Report of a Workshop by the National Academy of Engineering and United States Institute of Peace: Roundtable on Technology, Science, and Peacebuilding

On May 23, 2012, the Roundtable on Technology, Science, and Peacebuilding convened a workshop at the United States Institute of Peace (USIP) to investigate data sharing as a means of improving coordination among US government and nongovernment …

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Ensuring the Integrity, Accessibility, and Stewardship of Research Data in the Digital Age

As digital technologies are expanding the power and reach of research, they are also raising complex issues. These include complications in ensuring the validity of research data; standards that do not keep pace with the high rate of innovation; …

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Prescriptions to Improve Health Literacy – Perspectives from the Field

Health literacy plays an important role in improving community health. These reports support the development, implementation, and sharing of evidence-based health literacy practices and policies. They are all free to read online or download as PDFs.

Health Literacy and Older Adults: Reshaping the Landscape: Proceedings of a Workshop

Adults age 65 and older make up the fastest-growing segment of the U.S. population. At the same time, the complexity of health care delivery continues to grow, creating challenges that are magnified for older adults, given that age is one of the highest correlates of low health literacy. This …

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Community-Based Health Literacy Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop

In its landmark report, Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion, the Institute of Medicine noted that there are 90 million adults in the United States with limited health literacy who cannot fully benefit from what the health and health care systems have to offer. Since the …

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People Living with Disabilities: Health Equity, Health Disparities, and Health Literacy: Proceedings of a Workshop

Poor health literacy has many negative consequences for achieving the quadruple aim of better care, improving the health of the community and the population, providing affordable care, and improving the work life of health care providers, and those consequences disproportionately affect those …

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Facilitating Health Communication with Immigrant, Refugee, and Migrant Populations Through the Use of Health Literacy and Community Engagement Strategies: Proceedings of a Workshop

The increasingly diverse ethnic composition of the United States population has created a profound and ongoing demographic shift, and public health and health care organizations face many challenges as they move to address and adapt to this change. To better understand how the public health and …

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Communicating Clearly About Medicines: Proceedings of a Workshop

Research conducted over the past two decades has shown that poor patient understanding of medication instructions is an important contributor to the more than 1 million medication errors and adverse drug events that lead to office and emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and even death. …

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Health Insurance and Insights from Health Literacy: Helping Consumers Understand: Proceedings of a Workshop

Since the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), health care reform has created major changes in the U.S. health care system. The ACA has brought millions of people into the system who had no previous access, and many of these newly enrolled individuals have had limited …

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Health Literacy and Palliative Care: Workshop Summary

The Institute of Medicine Roundtable on Health Literacy convened a 1-day public workshop to explore the relationship between palliative care and health literacy, and the importance of health literate communication in providing high-quality delivery of palliative care. Health Literacy and …

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Food Literacy: How Do Communications and Marketing Impact Consumer Knowledge, Skills, and Behavior? Workshop Summary

In September 2015, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Food and Nutrition Board convened a workshop in Washington, DC, to discuss how communications and marketing impact consumer knowledge, skills, and behavior around food, nutrition, and healthy eating. The workshop …

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Health Literacy: Past, Present, and Future: Workshop Summary

In 2004, the Institute of Medicine released Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion, a report on the then-underappreciated challenge of enabling patients to comprehend their condition and treatment, to make the best decisions for their care, and to take the right medications at …

[more]

Health Literacy and Consumer-Facing Technology: Workshop Summary

The proliferation of consumer-facing technology and personal health information technology has grown steadily over the past decade, and has certainly exploded over the past several years. Many people have embraced smartphones and wearable health-monitoring devices to track their fitness and …

[more]

Supporting Children with Disabilities

Children with disabilities and complex medical and educational needs require a varied array of services to meet those needs. Uneven public and professional awareness of their conditions and a research base marked by significant gaps have led to programs, practices, and policies that are inconsistent in quality and coverage. These publications explore best practices for configuring and coordinating systems of care that can meet the complex needs of these children and their families.

Opportunities for Improving Programs and Services for Children with Disabilities

Although the general public in the United States assumes children to be generally healthy and thriving, a substantial and growing number of children have at least one chronic health condition. Many of these conditions are associated with …

[more]

The Promise of Assistive Technology to Enhance Activity and Work Participation

The U.S. Census Bureau has reported that 56.7 million Americans had some type of disability in 2010, which represents 18.7 percent of the civilian noninstitutionalized population included in the 2010 Survey of Income and Program Participation. …

[more]

Mental Disorders and Disabilities Among Low-Income Children

Children living in poverty are more likely to have mental health problems, and their conditions are more likely to be severe. Of the approximately 1.3 million children who were recipients of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability benefits …

[more]

Ensuring Quality and Accessible Care for Children with Disabilities and Complex Health and Educational Needs: Proceedings of a Workshop

Children with disabilities and complex medical and educational needs present a special challenge for policy makers and practitioners. These children exhibit tremendous heterogeneity in their conditions and needs, requiring a varied array of …

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