Supporting Children with Disabilities

Children with disabilities and complex medical and educational needs require a varied array of services to meet those needs. Uneven public and professional awareness of their conditions and a research base marked by significant gaps have led to programs, practices, and policies that are inconsistent in quality and coverage. These publications explore best practices for configuring and coordinating systems of care that can meet the complex needs of these children and their families.

Opportunities for Improving Programs and Services for Children with Disabilities

Although the general public in the United States assumes children to be generally healthy and thriving, a substantial and growing number of children have at least one chronic health condition. Many of these conditions are associated with …

[more]

The Promise of Assistive Technology to Enhance Activity and Work Participation

The U.S. Census Bureau has reported that 56.7 million Americans had some type of disability in 2010, which represents 18.7 percent of the civilian noninstitutionalized population included in the 2010 Survey of Income and Program Participation. …

[more]

Mental Disorders and Disabilities Among Low-Income Children

Children living in poverty are more likely to have mental health problems, and their conditions are more likely to be severe. Of the approximately 1.3 million children who were recipients of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability benefits …

[more]

Ensuring Quality and Accessible Care for Children with Disabilities and Complex Health and Educational Needs: Proceedings of a Workshop

Children with disabilities and complex medical and educational needs present a special challenge for policy makers and practitioners. These children exhibit tremendous heterogeneity in their conditions and needs, requiring a varied array of …

[more]

The Carbon Problem: How to Manage CO2

It’s imperative that we reduce the levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in our atmosphere if we want to avoid greatly increased risk of damage from climate change. The books below explore issues of carbon dioxide emissions and storage solutions. All are free to read online or download.

Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda

To achieve goals for climate and economic growth, “negative emissions technologies” (NETs) that remove and sequester carbon dioxide from the air will need to play a significant role in mitigating climate change. Unlike carbon capture and storage technologies that remove carbon dioxide …

[more]

Land Management Practices for Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques, which aim to remove and sequester excess carbon from the atmosphere, have been identified as an important part of the portfolio of responses to climate change and have been garnering increased attention. Forests, grasslands, agricultural lands, and soils …

[more]

Direct Air Capture and Mineral Carbonation Approaches for Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Direct air capture (DAC) refers to a range of technologies that capture and concentrate carbon dioxide (CO2) from ambient air. These technologies can include chemical scrubbing processes that capture CO2 through absorption or adsorption separation processes. DAC can also …

[more]

Geologic Capture and Sequestration of Carbon: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Geologic carbon capture and sequestration encompasses approaches for relatively permanent storage of carbon in the Earth’s geologic formations. Carbon dioxide (CO2) that has been captured from flue gas or other waste streams as pressurized fluids can be trapped geologically through …

[more]

Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage Approaches for Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is a technology that integrates biomass conversion to heat, electricity, or liquid or gas fuels with carbon capture and sequestration. BECCS could provide a significant portion of the global energy supply if deployed to its theoretical maximum …

[more]

Coastal Blue Carbon Approaches for Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Coastal environments provide many valuable ecosystem services. Their role as carbon sinks has been a topic of exploration to evaluate the potential for the restoration and management of coastal habitats as a viable carbon dioxide removal (CDR) approach. To explore the state of knowledge, …

[more]

Valuing Climate Damages: Updating Estimation of the Social Cost of Carbon Dioxide

The social cost of carbon (SC-CO2) is an economic metric intended to provide a comprehensive estimate of the net damages – that is, the monetized value of the net impacts, both negative and positive – from the global climate change that results from a small (1-metric ton) increase in …

[more]

Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration

The signals are everywhere that our planet is experiencing significant climate change. It is clear that we need to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from our atmosphere if we want to avoid greatly increased risk of damage from climate change. Aggressively pursuing …

[more]

Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth’s Climate

The ocean is an integral component of the Earth’s climate system. It covers about 70% of the Earth’s surface and acts as its primary reservoir of heat and carbon, absorbing over 90% of the surplus heat and about 30% of the carbon dioxide associated with human activities, and receiving close …

[more]

What You Need to Know About Cognitive Decline and Dementia

Societies around the world are concerned about dementia and the other forms of cognitive impairment that affect many older adults. It is now known that brain changes typically begin years before people show symptoms, which suggests a window of opportunity to prevent, slow, or delay the onset of these conditions. Our reports explore the state of knowledge on cognitive aging, and set a direction for future research.

Preventing Cognitive Decline and Dementia: A Way Forward

Societies around the world are concerned about dementia and the other forms of cognitive impairment that affect many older adults. We now know that brain changes typically begin years before people show symptoms, which suggests a window of opportunity to prevent or delay the onset of these …

[more]

Families Caring for an Aging America

Family caregiving affects millions of Americans every day, in all walks of life. At least 17.7 million individuals in the United States are caregivers of an older adult with a health or functional limitation. The nation’s family caregivers provide the lion’s share of long-term care for our …

[more]

Neurodegeneration: Exploring Commonalities Across Diseases: Workshop Summary

Neurodegeneration: Exploring Commonalities Across Diseases is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders in Spring 2012 to explore commonalities across neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, …

[more]

Financing and Payment Strategies to Support High-Quality Care for People with Serious Illness: Proceedings of a Workshop

Millions of people in the United States live with serious illnesses such as cancer, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and dementia—often for many years. Those facing serious illness have a range of interconnected …

[more]

Future Directions for the Demography of Aging: Proceedings of a Workshop

Almost 25 years have passed since the Demography of Aging (1994) was published by the National Research Council. Future Directions for the Demography of Aging is, in many ways, the successor to that original volume. The Division of Behavioral and Social Research at the National …

[more]

Cognitive Aging: Progress in Understanding and Opportunities for Action

For most Americans, staying “mentally sharp” as they age is a very high priority. Declines in memory and decision-making abilities may trigger fears of Alzheimer’s disease or other neurodegenerative diseases. However, cognitive aging is a natural process that can have both positive and negative …

[more]

Assessing the Impact of Applications of Digital Health Records on Alzheimer’s Disease Research: Workshop Summary

Health information technology is providing patients, clinicians, and researchers with access to data that will enable novel approaches to science and medicine. Digital health records (DHRs) are capable of being shared across different health care settings for the examination of possible trends …

[more]

The Mental Health and Substance Use Workforce for Older Adults: In Whose Hands?

At least 5.6 million to 8 million–nearly one in five–older adults in America have one or more mental health and substance use conditions, which present unique challenges for their care. With the number of adults age 65 and older projected to soar from 40.3 million in 2010 to 72.1 million by …

[more]

Considerations for the Design of a Systematic Review of Interventions for Preventing Clinical Alzheimer’s-Type Dementia, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Age-Related Cognitive Decline: Letter Report

The National Institutes of Health – and many other organizations and individuals worldwide – are interested in the state of the science on preventing Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and age-related cognitive decline. This letter report reviews the evidence on interventions to …

[more]

Exploring and Strengthening Cybersecurity

October is National Cybersecurity Awareness Month. Recent technological advances have placed heightened importance on the development of a safer and more secure cyberspace. How can we improve cybersecurity and best prevent cyberattacks? Our reports reinforce the importance of strengthening our computer and communications systems and networks, and recommend strategies for future research.

Foundational Cybersecurity Research: Improving Science, Engineering, and Institutions

Attaining meaningful cybersecurity presents a broad societal challenge. Its complexity and the range of systems and sectors in which it is needed mean that successful approaches are necessarily multifaceted. Moreover, cybersecurity is a dynamic process involving human attackers who continue to …

[more]

Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy

During the 2016 presidential election, America’s election infrastructure was targeted by actors sponsored by the Russian government. Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy examines the challenges arising out of the 2016 federal election, assesses current technology and standards for …

[more]

Decrypting the Encryption Debate: A Framework for Decision Makers

Encryption protects information stored on smartphones, laptops, and other devices – in some cases by default. Encrypted communications are provided by widely used computing devices and services – such as smartphones, laptops, and messaging applications – that are used by hundreds of millions of …

[more]

Recoverability as a First-Class Security Objective: Proceedings of a Workshop

The Forum on Cyber Resilience of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted the Workshop on Recoverability as a First-Class Security Objective on February 8, 2018, in Washington, D.C. The workshop featured presentations from several experts in industry, research, and …

[more]

Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop

In May 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a workshop on Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability. Speakers at the workshop discussed the history and practice of cryptography, its current challenges, and its future possibilities. This publication …

[more]

Software Update as a Mechanism for Resilience and Security: Proceedings of a Workshop

Software update is an important mechanism by which security changes and improvements are made in software, and this seemingly simple concept encompasses a wide variety of practices, mechanisms, policies, and technologies. To explore the landscape further, the Forum on Cyber Resilience hosted a …

[more]

Data Breach Aftermath and Recovery for Individuals and Institutions: Proceedings of a Workshop

In January 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted the Workshop on Data Breach Aftermath and Recovery for Individuals and Institutions. Participants examined existing technical and policy remediations, and they discussed possible new mechanisms for better …

[more]

Cybersecurity Dilemmas: Technology, Policy, and Incentives: Summary of Discussions at the 2014 Raymond and Beverly Sackler U.S.-U.K. Scientific Forum

Individuals, businesses, governments, and society at large have tied their future to information technologies, and activities carried out in cyberspace have become integral to daily life. Yet these activities – many of them drivers of economic development – are under constant attack from …

[more]

At the Nexus of Cybersecurity and Public Policy: Some Basic Concepts and Issues

We depend on information and information technology (IT) to make many of our day-to-day tasks easier and more convenient. Computers play key roles in transportation, health care, banking, and energy. Businesses use IT for payroll and accounting, inventory and sales, and research and development. …

[more]

Preventing Bullying

October is National Bullying Prevention Month. According to Stopbullying.gov, one in four U.S. children report that they have been bullied at school or online. These free books and resources explore the state of the science on biological and psychosocial consequences of peer victimization and the risk and protective factors that either increase or decrease peer victimization.

Learn what you can do to prevent bullying with our resources for parents, teachers, and students.

 

Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy, and Practice

Bullying has long been tolerated as a rite of passage among children and adolescents. There is an implication that individuals who are bullied must have “asked for” this type of treatment, or deserved it. Sometimes, even the child who is bullied begins to internalize this idea. For many years, …

[more]

Building Capacity to Reduce Bullying: Workshop Summary

Bullying – long tolerated as just a part of growing up – finally has been recognized as a substantial and preventable health problem. Bullying is associated with anxiety, depression, poor school performance, and future delinquent behavior among its targets, and reports regularly surface of youth …

[more]

Preventing Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People: Progress and Possibilities

Mental health and substance use disorders among children, youth, and young adults are major threats to the health and well-being of younger populations which often carryover into adulthood. The costs of treatment for mental health and addictive disorders, which create an enormous burden on the …

[more]

Flood Resilience and Recovery

After a flood, the devastation that remains necessitates coordination between multiple industries to rebuild infrastructure, arrange health and social services, and support community recovery. Research on floods and their consequences allows us to offer guidance for preparation and execution of the recovery process. These free reports examine the implications of flooding and recommend actions for future recovery.

Dam and Levee Safety and Community Resilience: A Vision for Future Practice

Although advances in engineering can reduce the risk of dam and levee failure, some failures will still occur. Such events cause impacts on social and physical infrastructure that extend far beyond the flood zone. Broadening dam and levee safety …

[more]

A Community-Based Flood Insurance Option

River and coastal floods are among the nation’s most costly natural disasters. One component in the nation’s approach to managing flood risk is availability of flood insurance policies, which are offered on an individual basis primarily through …

[more]

Tying Flood Insurance to Flood Risk for Low-Lying Structures in the Floodplain

Floods take a heavy toll on society, costing lives, damaging buildings and property, disrupting livelihoods, and sometimes necessitating federal disaster relief, which has risen to record levels in recent years. The National Flood Insurance …

[more]

Affordability of National Flood Insurance Program Premiums: Report 1

The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) is housed within the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and offers insurance policies that are marketed and sold through private insurers, but with the risks borne by the U.S. federal …

[more]

Affordability of National Flood Insurance Program Premiums: Report 2

When Congress authorized the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in 1968, it intended for the program to encourage community initiatives in flood risk management, charge insurance premiums consistent with actuarial pricing principles, and …

[more]

Levees and the National Flood Insurance Program: Improving Policies and Practices

The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration (FIMA) manages the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), which is a cornerstone in the U.S. strategy to assist communities to prepare for, …

[more]

Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative

No person or place is immune from disasters or disaster-related losses. Infectious disease outbreaks, acts of terrorism, social unrest, or financial disasters in addition to natural hazards can all lead to large-scale consequences for the nation …

[more]

Mapping the Zone: Improving Flood Map Accuracy

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Maps portray the height and extent to which flooding is expected to occur, and they form the basis for setting flood insurance premiums and regulating development in the floodplain. …

[more]

Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts

Hurricane- and coastal-storm-related losses have increased substantially during the past century, largely due to increases in population and development in the most susceptible coastal areas. Climate change poses additional threats to coastal …

[more]

Healthy, Resilient, and Sustainable Communities After Disasters: Strategies, Opportunities, and Planning for Recovery

In the devastation that follows a major disaster, there is a need for multiple sectors to unite and devote new resources to support the rebuilding of infrastructure, the provision of health and social services, the restoration of care delivery …

[more]

The Future of Voting in the United States

We live in a nation that is unique in the tremendous importance it places on free speech. Not only does the Constitution forbid official censorship, but it invests our government with the extraordinary responsibility of ensuring that all Americans can be heard. In this context, the ability of the citizenry to participate in elections and have their votes accurately cast and counted is paramount. The 2016 Presidential election was a watershed moment in the history of elections. The election exposed new technical and operational challenges, showed us that citizens must become more discerning consumers of information, and demonstrated that our leaders must speak candidly and apolitically about threats to our election systems.

Our recent report, Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy, examines the challenges arising out of the 2016 federal election, assesses current technology and standards for voting, and recommends steps that the federal government, state and local governments, election administrators, and vendors of voting technology should take to improve the security of election infrastructure. In doing so, the report provides a vision of voting that is more secure, accessible, reliable, and verifiable.

Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy

During the 2016 presidential election, America’s election infrastructure was targeted by actors sponsored by the Russian government. Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy examines the challenges arising out of the 2016 federal election, assesses current technology and …

[more]

Understanding and Preventing Sports-Related Concussions in Youth

In the past decade, few subjects at the intersection of medicine and sports have generated as much public interest as sports-related concussions – especially among youth. If the youth sports community can adopt the belief that concussions are serious injuries and emphasize care for players with concussions until they are fully recovered, then the culture in which these athletes perform and compete will become much safer. Improving understanding of the extent, causes, effects, and prevention of sports-related concussions is vitally important for the health and well-being of youth athletes. The findings and recommendations in our report set a direction for research to reach this goal.

 

Sports-Related Concussions in Youth: Improving the Science, Changing the Culture

In the past decade, few subjects at the intersection of medicine and sports have generated as much public interest as sports-related concussions – especially among youth. Despite growing awareness of sports-related concussions and campaigns to educate athletes, coaches, physicians, and parents …

[more]

Watch the video to learn more about the symptoms of sports-related concussions, as well as the findings and recommendations of the report.

Perspectives on Higher Education for the New Academic Year

21st century careers require highly skilled workers with strong technical knowledge as well as the ability to solve problems, think creatively, work collaboratively and function as lifelong learners. Recent National Academies studies dive into some of today’s most urgent higher education issues. We asked the Study Directors of each of the publications featured below to highlight actionable recommendations for universities and other stakeholders.

 

“The number of bachelor’s degrees awarded nationally in computer and information science and support services has surged in recent years, increasing by 74 percent between 2009 and 2015, compared to a 16 percent increase in bachelor’s degrees overall. At the same time, interest in computer science courses among majors and non-majors alike has also grown, reflecting the increasing importance of CS skills across disciplines and occupational fields, and in daily life. This report explores the drivers of and potential strategies for responding to this increased demand, noting that there is no one-size-fits-all solution. Academic institutions should respond with urgency to the current demand while planning for the future role of CS institution-wide, taking deliberate actions to support diversity in their programs.” — Emily Grumbling, Study Officer

Assessing and Responding to the Growth of Computer Science Undergraduate Enrollments

The field of computer science (CS) is currently experiencing a surge in undergraduate degree production and course enrollments, which is straining program resources at many institutions and causing concern among faculty and administrators about how best to respond to the rapidly growing demand. …

[more]

 

“The U.S. system of graduate education for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has long served as an international gold standard by preparing researchers to advance the frontiers of discovery. Given major global challenges such as the rapid innovations in the conduct of research, the role of STEM in the workforce and the economy, and the increasingly diverse backgrounds of students seeking advances degrees, how prepared is the system of graduate education to respond to these changes? The report Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century calls for cultural change in academic research, which requires adjusting the incentive systems driven in large part by federal and state funding agencies. The incentives often lack alignment with the ideal, student-centric vision of graduate education called for by the committee, which includes support for diverse, equitable, and inclusive learning environments; a system that provides training for mentors and advisors; time and resources for broad career exploration; and increased mental health services. The committee addressed these critical issues, as well as drawing attention to the need for increased data collection in and research on graduate STEM education programs, and provided a series of recommendations to ensure that all stakeholders in the system understand their role in driving change.” — Layne Scherer, Study Officer

Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century

The U.S. system of graduate education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has served the nation and its science and engineering enterprise extremely well. Over the course of their education, graduate students become involved in advancing the frontiers of discovery, as …

[more]

 

“The ‘Branches from the Same Tree’ study explored the impact on students of educational approaches that integrate the humanities and arts with science, engineering, and medicine in higher education. The title of the study is based on a quote from Albert Einstein in which he describes the unity of human knowledge, stating ‘all religions, arts, and sciences are branches from the same tree.’ The study committee found that integrative educational approaches are associated with positive student learning outcomes, including increased critical thinking abilities, higher-order thinking and deeper learning, content mastery, problem solving, teamwork and communication skills, improved visuospatial reasoning, and general engagement and enjoyment of learning. The committee found an incredible groundswell of enthusiasm for integrative educational approaches and catalogued over 200 interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and multidisciplinary programs and courses at a diverse array of colleges and universities.” — Ashley Bear, Study Officer

The Integration of the Humanities and Arts with Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in Higher Education: Branches from the Same Tree

In the United States, broad study in an array of different disciplines —arts, humanities, science, mathematics, engineering— as well as an in-depth study within a special area of interest, have been defining characteristics of a higher education. But over time, in-depth study in a major …

[more]

 

“There is a growing concern that the biomedical research enterprise, for all of its many strengths, is beset by several core challenges that undercut its vitality, promise, and productivity and that could diminish its critical role in the nation’s health and innovation in the biomedical industry. This is not a new problem – in fact, reports addressing vulnerabilities in the biomedical research workforce have been issued over the last two decades. The committee for the Next Generation Researchers Initiative investigated conclusions from these earlier reports and identified several impediments to progress over the years. A key impediment has been an absence of shared responsibility for the biomedical research system. Many stakeholders in the system tend to hold the federal government responsible for this system, placing blame for failures at the feet of NIH, the principal funder of biomedical research. Doing so, however, obscures the important role that other organizations, particularly universities, must play in developing and implementing solutions. The committee therefore offered several recommendations specifically for universities, as well as a mechanism for shared oversight of the system.” — Lida Beninson, Study Officer

The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through

Since the end of the Second World War, the United States has developed the world’s preeminent system for biomedical research, one that has given rise to revolutionary medical advances as well as a dynamic and innovative business sector generating high-quality jobs and powering economic output …

[more]

 

“More than 50% of female faculty and staff in higher education and between 20-50% of female students have experienced sexual harassment. Even when the sexual harassment consists of sexist insults or crude behavior, without any unwanted sexual attention or sexual coercion, it can undermine women’s professional and educational attainment and mental and physical health. To stop the pattern of harassing behavior from impacting the next generation of women, a change to the culture and climate in colleges and universities is needed. This report reviews the research on sexual harassment in academia and details how system-wide changes in higher education can be implemented to prevent and address sexual harassment in education and research settings.” — Frazier Benya, Study Officer

Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Over the last few decades, research, activity, and funding has been devoted to improving the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in the fields of science, engineering, and medicine. In recent years the diversity of those participating in these fields, particularly the participation …

[more]

The Role of Science in Criminal Investigation

Science plays a vital but sometimes limited role in criminal investigation. Our reports study the opportunities for and challenges of incorporating science in crime investigation, and identify best practices for improved application. These studies are essential resources for the law enforcement and legal communities.

Identifying the Culprit: Assessing Eyewitness Identification

Eyewitnesses play an important role in criminal cases when they can identify culprits. Estimates suggest that tens of thousands of eyewitnesses make identifications in criminal investigations each year. Research on factors that affect the …

[more]

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward

Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and …

[more]

Science Needs for Microbial Forensics: Developing Initial International Research Priorities

Microbial forensics is a scientific discipline dedicated to analyzing evidence from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, or inadvertent microorganism or toxin release for attribution purposes. This emerging discipline seeks to offer investigators the …

[more]

Review of the Scientific Approaches Used During the FBI’s Investigation of the 2001 Anthrax Letters

Less than a month after the September 11, 2001 attacks, letters containing spores of anthrax bacteria (Bacillus anthracis, or B. anthracis) were sent through the U.S. mail. Between October 4 and November 20, 2001, 22 individuals developed …

[more]

Neuroforensics: Exploring the Legal Implications of Emerging Neurotechnologies: Proceedings of a Workshop

Discussions around the intersection between neuroscience and the law began decades ago. Originally used mostly in death penalty cases, the role of neuroscience has extended to cases involving drugs, assault, burglary, child abuse, rape, fraud, …

[more]

Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence: Third Edition

The Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, Third Edition, assists judges in managing cases involving complex scientific and technical evidence by describing the basic tenets of key scientific fields from which legal evidence is typically …

[more]

Ballistic Imaging

Ballistic Imaging assesses the state of computer-based imaging technology in forensic firearms identification. The book evaluates the current law enforcement database of images of crime-related cartridge cases and bullets and recommends ways to …

[more]

Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities

Proactive policing, as a strategic approach used by police agencies to prevent crime, is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States. It developed from a crisis in confidence in policing that began to emerge in the 1960s because of social …

[more]

Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence

Because police are the most visible face of government power for most citizens, they are expected to deal effectively with crime and disorder and to be impartial. Producing justice through the fair, and restrained use of their authority. The …

[more]

Forensic Analysis: Weighing Bullet Lead Evidence

Since the 1960s, testimony by representatives of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in thousands of criminal cases has relied on evidence from Compositional Analysis of Bullet Lead (CABL), a forensic technique that compares the elemental …

[more]

The Polygraph and Lie Detection

The polygraph, often portrayed as a magic mind-reading machine, is still controversial among experts, who continue heated debates about its validity as a lie-detecting device. As the nation takes a fresh look at ways to enhance its security, can the …

[more]