Promoting the Health and Well-Being of Children

From their infancy to their adolescence, children continuously develop capacities that are crucial for their physical and emotional well-being and their cognitive abilities, which in turn help to promote their success in school, their responsible behavior as adults, their eventual economic self-sufficiency, and lifelong health. Our titles explore opportunities and challenges to support the healthy growth and development of all children.

A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty

A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty

The strengths and abilities children develop from infancy through adolescence are crucial for their physical, emotional, and cognitive growth, which in turn help them to achieve success in school and to become responsible, economically …[more]

Vibrant and Healthy Kids: Aligning Science, Practice, and Policy to Advance Health Equity

Vibrant and Healthy Kids: Aligning Science, Practice, and Policy to Advance Health Equity

Children are the foundation of the United States, and supporting them is a key component of building a successful future. However, millions of children face health inequities that compromise their development, well-being, and long-term outcomes, …[more]

Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth

Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth

For children and youth, summertime presents a unique break from the traditional structure, resources, and support systems that exist during the school year. For some students, this time involves opportunities to engage in fun and enriching …[more]

Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice

Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice

The delivery of high quality and equitable care for both mothers and newborns is complex and requires efforts across many sectors. The United States spends more on childbirth than any other country in the world, yet outcomes are worse than other …[more]

Feeding Infants and Children from Birth to 24 Months: Summarizing Existing Guidance

Feeding Infants and Children from Birth to 24 Months: Summarizing Existing Guidance

Recommendations for feeding infants and young children have changed substantially over time owing to scientific advances, cultural influences, societal trends, and other factors. At the same time, stronger approaches to reviewing and synthesizing …[more]

Fostering Healthy Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Development in Children and Youth: A National Agenda

Fostering Healthy Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Development in Children and Youth: A National Agenda

Healthy mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) development is a critical foundation for a productive adulthood. Much is known about strategies to support families and communities in strengthening the MEB development of children and youth, by …[more]

English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives

English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives

The imperative that all students, including English learners (ELs), achieve high academic standards and have opportunities to participate in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning has become even more urgent and complex …[more]

Transforming the Financing of Early Care and Education

Transforming the Financing of Early Care and Education

High-quality early care and education for children from birth to kindergarten entry is critical to positive child development and has the potential to generate economic returns, which benefit not only children and their families but society at …[more]

Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy, and Practice

Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy, and Practice

Bullying has long been tolerated as a rite of passage among children and adolescents. There is an implication that individuals who are bullied must have “asked for” this type of treatment, or deserved it. Sometimes, even the child who is bullied …[more]

Advancing the Power of Economic Evidence to Inform Investments in Children, Youth, and Families

Advancing the Power of Economic Evidence to Inform Investments in Children, Youth, and Families

In recent years, the U.S. federal government has invested approximately $463 billion annually in interventions that affect the overall health and well-being of children and youth, while state and local budgets have devoted almost double that …[more]

Reaching and Investing in Children at the Margins: Summary of a Joint Workshop by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Open Society Foundations; and the International Step by Step Association (ISSA)

Reaching and Investing in Children at the Margins: Summary of a Joint Workshop by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Open Society Foundations; and the International Step by Step Association (ISSA)

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals for 2015-2030 strive for a world that is “just, equitable, and inclusive,” in which everyone receives care, education, and opportunities to thrive. Yet many children are living on the margins of …[more]

Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8

Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8

Decades of research have demonstrated that the parent-child dyad and the environment of the family—which includes all primary caregivers—are at the foundation of children’s well- being and healthy development. From birth, children are …[more]

Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation

Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation

Children are already learning at birth, and they develop and learn at a rapid pace in their early years. This provides a critical foundation for lifelong progress, and the adults who provide for the care and the education of young children bear a …[more]

The Cost of Inaction for Young Children Globally: Workshop Summary

The Cost of Inaction for Young Children Globally: Workshop Summary

The Cost of Inaction for Young Children Globally is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally in April 2014 to focus on investments in young children and the cost of …[more]

Building the Resilience of the Electric Grid

The electric power transmission and distribution system (the grid) is an extraordinarily complex network of wires, transformers, and associated equipment and control software designed to transmit electricity from where it is generated, usually in centralized power plants, to commercial, residential, and industrial users. During natural and man-made disasters, destruction of the grid cascades well beyond whether the lights turn on, impacting among other basic services such as the fueling infrastructure, the economic system, and emergency services. Our reports discuss vulnerabilities of the grid, ways in which communities respond to widespread outages and how to minimize these impacts, and how resilience can be encouraged and built into the grid in the future. All are free to read online or download.

The Future of Electric Power in the United States

The Future of Electric Power in the United States

Electric power is essential for the lives and livelihoods of all Americans, and the need for electricity that is safe, clean, affordable, and reliable will only grow in the decades to come. At the request of Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Academies convened a committee of experts to undertake a comprehensive evaluation of …[more]

Bringing Fusion to the U.S. Grid

Bringing Fusion to the U.S. Grid

Fusion energy offers the prospect of addressing the nation’s energy needs and contributing to the transition to a low-carbon emission electrical generation infrastructure. Technology and research results from U.S. investments in the major fusion burning plasma experiment known as ITER, coupled with a strong foundation of research funded by the …[more]

Models to Inform Planning for the Future of Electric Power in the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop

Models to Inform Planning for the Future of Electric Power in the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop

Providing a reliable and resilient supply of electric power to communities across the United States has always posed a complex challenge. Utilities must support daily operations to serve a diverse array of customers across a heterogeneous landscape while simultaneously investing in infrastructure to meet future needs, all while juggling an …[more]

Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop

Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop

Electric power is a critical infrastructure that is vital to the U.S. economy and national security. Today, the nation’s electric power infrastructure is threatened by malicious attacks, accidents, and failures, as well as disruptive natural events. As the electric grid evolves and becomes increasingly interdependent with other critical …[more]

Enhancing Urban Sustainability with Data, Modeling, and Simulation: Proceedings of a Workshop

Enhancing Urban Sustainability with Data, Modeling, and Simulation: Proceedings of a Workshop

On January 30-31, 2019 the Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics, in collaboration with the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems and the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, convened a workshop in Washington, D.C. to explore the frontiers of mathematics and data science needs for sustainable urban communities. The workshop …[more]

Analytic Research Foundations for the Next-Generation Electric Grid

Analytic Research Foundations for the Next-Generation Electric Grid

Electricity is the lifeblood of modern society, and for the vast majority of people that electricity is obtained from large, interconnected power grids. However, the grid that was developed in the 20th century, and the incremental improvements made since then, including its underlying analytic foundations, is no longer adequate to completely …[more]

Mathematical Sciences Research Challenges for the Next-Generation Electric Grid: Summary of a Workshop

Mathematical Sciences Research Challenges for the Next-Generation Electric Grid: Summary of a Workshop

If the United States is to sustain its economic prosperity, quality of life, and global competitiveness, it must continue to have an abundance of secure, reliable, and affordable energy resources. There have been many improvements in the technology and capability of the electric grid over the past several decades. Many of these advances to the …[more]

The Resilience of the Electric Power Delivery System in Response to Terrorism and Natural Disasters: Summary of a Workshop

The Resilience of the Electric Power Delivery System in Response to Terrorism and Natural Disasters: Summary of a Workshop

The Resilience of the Electric Power Delivery System in Response to Terrorism and Natural Disasters is the summary of a workshop convened in February 2013 as a follow-up to the release of the National Research Council report Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System. That report had been written in 2007 for the Department …[more]

Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System

Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System

The electric power delivery system that carries electricity from large central generators to customers could be severely damaged by a small number of well-informed attackers. The system is inherently vulnerable because transmission lines may span hundreds of miles, and many key facilities are unguarded. This vulnerability is exacerbated by the …[more]

Informing the Future of Mars Exploration

The Space Studies Board of The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine serves as an independent, authoritative forum for information and advice on all aspects of space science and applications. The publications from this board help to inform NASA’s Mars Exploration Program as it studies the geological processes that have shaped Mars through time, the potential for Mars to have hosted life, and the future exploration of Mars by humans. As always, all are free to read online or download.

Pathways to Exploration: Rationales and Approaches for a U.S. Program of Human Space Exploration

Pathways to Exploration: Rationales and Approaches for a U.S. Program of Human Space Exploration

The United States has publicly funded its human spaceflight program on a continuous basis for more than a half-century, through three wars and a half-dozen recessions, from the early Mercury and Gemini suborbital and Earth orbital missions, to the lunar landings, and thence to the first reusable …[more]

Visions into Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022: A Midterm Review

Visions into Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022: A Midterm Review

In spring 2011 the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine produced a report outlining the next decade in planetary sciences. That report, titled Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022, and popularly referred to as the “decadal survey,” has …[more]

Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons

Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons

An international consensus policy to prevent the biological cross-contamination of planetary bodies exists and is maintained by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science, which is consultative to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer …[more]

Review of the MEPAG Report on Mars Special Regions

Review of the MEPAG Report on Mars Special Regions

Planetary protection is a guiding principle in the design of an interplanetary mission, aiming to prevent biological contamination of both the target celestial body and the Earth. The protection of high-priority science goals, the search for life and the understanding of the Martian organic …[more]

Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions

Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions

NASA maintains a planetary protection policy to avoid the forward biological contamination of other worlds by terrestrial organisms, and back biological contamination of Earth from the return of extraterrestrial materials by spaceflight missions. Forward-contamination issues related to Mars …[more]

Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022

Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022

In recent years, planetary science has seen a tremendous growth in new knowledge. Deposits of water ice exist at the Moon’s poles. Discoveries on the surface of Mars point to an early warm wet climate, and perhaps conditions under which life could have emerged. Liquid methane rain falls on …[more]

An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars

An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars

Three recent developments have greatly increased interest in the search for life on Mars. The first is new information about the Martian environment including evidence of a watery past and the possibility of atmospheric methane. The second is the possibility of microbial viability on Mars. …[more]

Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars

Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars

Recent spacecraft and robotic probes to Mars have yielded data that are changing our understanding significantly about the possibility of existing or past life on that planet. Coupled with advances in biology and life-detection techniques, these developments place increasing importance on the need …[more]

Assessment of NASA's Mars Architecture 2007-2016

Assessment of NASA’s Mars Architecture 2007-2016

The United States and the former Soviet Union have sent spacecraft to mars as early as 1966, with Mars’ exploration being priority for NASA spacecraft. Both sides, however, have failed as well as succeed. The inability to determine if life exists on Mars is considered one of NASA’s failures and …[more]

Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities

Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities

Within the Office of Space Science of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) special importance is attached to exploration of the planet Mars, because it is the most like Earth of the planets in the solar system and the place where the first detection of extraterrestrial life …[more]

Safe on Mars: Precursor Measurements Necessary to Support Human Operations on the Martian Surface

Safe on Mars: Precursor Measurements Necessary to Support Human Operations on the Martian Surface

This study, commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), examines the role of robotic exploration missions in assessing the risks to the first human missions to Mars. Only those hazards arising from exposure to environmental, chemical, and biological agents on the …[more]

The Quarantine and Certification of Martian Samples

The Quarantine and Certification of Martian Samples

One of the highest-priority activities in the planetary sciences identified in published reports of the Space Studies Board’s Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) and in reports of other advisory groups is the collection and return of extraterrestrial samples to Earth for study …[more]

Recommendations on Quarantine Policy for Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan

Recommendations on Quarantine Policy for Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan [more]

Biology and the Exploration of Mars

Biology and the Exploration of Mars

Until recent years the origin of life and its possible occurrence elsewhere in the universe have been matters for speculation only. The rapid growth of molecular biology since 1940 has, to be sure, made it possible to discuss life’s origins in far more precise and explicit terms than was …[more]

Promoting Equity in K-12 Science and Engineering Education

A growing number of important occupations in the 21st century will make use of the practices of scientific analyses, argumentation, communication, and engineering design. Providing a high quality science and engineering foundation for all K-12 students will remove some of the barriers that prevent them from pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering, mathematics and medicine. Our titles provide guidance for monitoring educational equity, implementing and assessing teaching of new science standards, integrating engineering education in curriculum, and providing professional education experiences to support teachers’ learning. All are free to download or read online.

Monitoring Educational Equity

Monitoring Educational Equity

Disparities in educational attainment among population groups have characterized the United States throughout its history. Education is sometimes characterized as the “great equalizer,” but to date, the country has not found ways to successfully address the adverse effects of socioeconomic …[more]

Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis

Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis

The COVID-19 pandemic is resulting in widespread and ongoing changes to how the K-12 education system functions, including disruptions to science teaching and learning environments. Students and teachers are all figuring out how to do schooling differently, and districts and states are working …[more]

Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K-12 Education

Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K-12 Education

Engineering education is emerging as an important component of US K-12 education. Across the country, students in classrooms and after- and out-of-school programs are participating in hands-on, problem-focused learning activities using the engineering design process. These experiences can be …[more]

Cultivating Interest and Competencies in Computing: Authentic Experiences and Design Factors

Cultivating Interest and Competencies in Computing: Authentic Experiences and Design Factors

Computing in some form touches nearly every aspect of day to day life and is reflected in the ubiquitous use of cell phones, the expansion of automation into many industries, and the vast amounts of data that are routinely gathered about people’s health, education, and buying habits. Computing …[more]

Science and Engineering for Grades 6-12: Investigation and Design at the Center

Science and Engineering for Grades 6-12: Investigation and Design at the Center

It is essential for today’s students to learn about science and engineering in order to make sense of the world around them and participate as informed members of a democratic society. The skills and ways of thinking that are developed and honed through engaging in scientific and engineering …[more]

English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives

English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives

The imperative that all students, including English learners (ELs), achieve high academic standards and have opportunities to participate in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning has become even more urgent and complex given shifts in science and mathematics …[more]

Design, Selection, and Implementation of Instructional Materials for the Next Generation Science Standards: Proceedings of a Workshop

Design, Selection, and Implementation of Instructional Materials for the Next Generation Science Standards: Proceedings of a Workshop

Instructional materials are a key means to achieving the goals of science education—an enterprise that yields unique and worthwhile benefits to individuals and society. As states and districts move forward with adoption and implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) or work …[more]

Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom

Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom

Science educators in the United States are adapting to a new vision of how students learn science. Children are natural explorers and their observations and intuitions about the world around them are the foundation for science learning. Unfortunately, the way science has been taught in the …[more]

Guide to Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards

Guide to Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards

A Framework for K-12 Science Education and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) describe a new vision for science learning and teaching that is catalyzing improvements in science classrooms across the United States. Achieving this new vision will require time, resources, and …[more]

Science Teachers' Learning: Enhancing Opportunities, Creating Supportive Contexts

Science Teachers’ Learning: Enhancing Opportunities, Creating Supportive Contexts

Currently, many states are adopting the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) or are revising their own state standards in ways that reflect the NGSS. For students and schools, the implementation of any science standards rests with teachers. For those teachers, an evolving understanding about …[more]

STEM Integration in K-12 Education: Status, Prospects, and an Agenda for Research

STEM Integration in K-12 Education: Status, Prospects, and an Agenda for Research

STEM Integration in K-12 Education examines current efforts to connect the STEM disciplines in K-12 education. This report identifies and characterizes existing approaches to integrated STEM education, both in formal and after- and out-of-school settings. The report reviews the evidence …[more]

Monitoring Progress Toward Successful K-12 STEM Education: A Nation Advancing?

Monitoring Progress Toward Successful K-12 STEM Education: A Nation Advancing?

Following a 2011 report by the National Research Council (NRC) on successful K-12 education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), Congress asked the National Science Foundation to identify methods for tracking progress toward the report’s recommendations. In response, the …[more]

Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States

Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States

Next Generation Science Standards identifies the science all K-12 students should know. These new standards are based on the National Research Council’s A Framework for K-12 Science Education. The National Research Council, the National Science Teachers Association, the …[more]

A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas

A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas

Science, engineering, and technology permeate nearly every facet of modern life and hold the key to solving many of humanity’s most pressing current and future challenges. The United States’ position in the global economy is declining, in part because U.S. workers lack fundamental knowledge in …[more]

Engineering in K-12 Education: Understanding the Status and Improving the Prospects

Engineering in K-12 Education: Understanding the Status and Improving the Prospects

Engineering education in K-12 classrooms is a small but growing phenomenon that may have implications for engineering and also for the other STEM subjects–science, technology, and mathematics. Specifically, engineering education may improve student learning and achievement in science and …[more]

Preparing for and Responding to Record-Breaking Natural Disasters

According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in 2020 the U.S. experienced a record-smashing 22 weather and climate disasters that killed at least 262 people and injured scores more. Damages from these disasters exceeded $1 billion each and totaled approximately $95 billion for all 22 events. How can we best prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters? Our titles explore impacts of natural disasters and ways to promote resiliency for future disaster events. All are free to download.

Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response

Evidence-Based Practice for Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response

When communities face complex public health emergencies, state local, tribal, and territorial public health agencies must make difficult decisions regarding how to effectively respond. The public health emergency preparedness and response (PHEPR) system, with its multifaceted mission to prevent, protect against, quickly respond to, and recover …[more]

Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria

Strengthening Post-Hurricane Supply Chain Resilience: Observations from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria

Resilient supply chains are crucial to maintaining the consistent delivery of goods and services to the American people. The modern economy has made supply chains more interconnected than ever, while also expanding both their range and fragility. In the third quarter of 2017, Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria revealed some significant …[more]

Implications of the California Wildfires for Health, Communities, and Preparedness: Proceedings of a Workshop

Implications of the California Wildfires for Health, Communities, and Preparedness: Proceedings of a Workshop

California and other wildfire-prone western states have experienced a substantial increase in the number and intensity of wildfires in recent years. Wildlands and climate experts expect these trends to continue and quite likely to worsen in coming years. Wildfires and other disasters can be particularly devastating for vulnerable communities. …[more]

A Framework for Assessing Mortality and Morbidity After Large-Scale Disasters

A Framework for Assessing Mortality and Morbidity After Large-Scale Disasters

In the wake of a large-scale disaster, from the initial devastation through the long tail of recovery, protecting the health and well-being of the affected individuals and communities is paramount. Accurate and timely information about mortality and significant morbidity related to the disaster are the cornerstone of the efforts of the disaster …[more]

Emergency Alert and Warning Systems: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions

Emergency Alert and Warning Systems: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions

Following a series of natural disasters, including Hurricane Katrina, that revealed shortcomings in the nation’s ability to effectively alert populations at risk, Congress passed the Warning, Alert, and Response Network (WARN) Act in 2006. Today, new technologies such as smart phones and social media platforms offer new ways to communicate …[more]

Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment

Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation’s Investment

The academic biomedical research community is a hub of employment, economic productivity, and scientific progress. Academic research institutions are drivers of economic development in their local and state economies and, by extension, the national economy. Beyond the economic input that the academic biomedical research community both receives …[more]

Healthy, Resilient, and Sustainable Communities After Disasters: Strategies, Opportunities, and Planning for Recovery

Healthy, Resilient, and Sustainable Communities After Disasters: Strategies, Opportunities, and Planning for Recovery

In the devastation that follows a major disaster, there is a need for multiple sectors to unite and devote new resources to support the rebuilding of infrastructure, the provision of health and social services, the restoration of care delivery systems, and other critical recovery needs. In some cases, billions of dollars from public, private …[more]

Strategic Issues Facing Transportation, Volume 2: Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and the Highway System: Practitioner’s Guide and Research Report

Strategic Issues Facing Transportation, Volume 2: Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and the Highway System: Practitioner’s Guide and Research Report

TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 750: Strategic Issues Facing Transportation, Volume 2: Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and the Highway System: Practitioner’s Guide and Research Report provides guidance on adaptation strategies to the likely impacts of climate change through 2050 in the planning, …[more]

Integrating Social and Behavioral Sciences Within the Weather Enterprise

Integrating Social and Behavioral Sciences Within the Weather Enterprise

Our ability to observe and forecast severe weather events has improved markedly over the past few decades. Forecasts of snow and ice storms, hurricanes and storm surge, extreme heat, and other severe weather events are made with greater accuracy, geographic specificity, and lead time to allow people and communities to take appropriate …[more]

Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative

Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative

No person or place is immune from disasters or disaster-related losses. Infectious disease outbreaks, acts of terrorism, social unrest, or financial disasters in addition to natural hazards can all lead to large-scale consequences for the nation and its communities. Communities and the nation thus face difficult fiscal, social, cultural, and …[more]

Resources to Understand and Improve Cybersecurity

The SolarWinds cyberhack announced earlier this month is a potent reminder that despite considerable investments of resources and intellect, cybersecurity continues to pose serious challenges to national security, business performance, and public well-being. Cybersecurity is a dynamic process involving human attackers who continue to adapt. Responding requires sustained attention to the cybersecurity posture of individuals, firms, and government and involves both efforts to more effectively and more widely use what is known about improving cybersecurity and efforts to develop new knowledge about cybersecurity. Our titles explore preparedness, response and recovery from cyberattack. All are free to download.

Implications of Artificial Intelligence for Cybersecurity: Proceedings of a Workshop

Implications of Artificial Intelligence for Cybersecurity: Proceedings of a Workshop

In recent years, interest and progress in the area of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have boomed, with new applications vigorously pursued across many sectors. At the same time, the computing and communications technologies on which we have come to rely present serious …[more]

Update of Security 101: A Physical Security and Cybersecurity Primer for Transportation Agencies

Update of Security 101: A Physical Security and Cybersecurity Primer for Transportation Agencies

Since 2009, when NCHRP’s last Security 101 report was released, there have been significant advances in transportation security approaches, including new strategies, programs, and ways of doing business that have increased the security of …[more]

Foundational Cybersecurity Research: Improving Science, Engineering, and Institutions

Foundational Cybersecurity Research: Improving Science, Engineering, and Institutions

Attaining meaningful cybersecurity presents a broad societal challenge. Its complexity and the range of systems and sectors in which it is needed mean that successful approaches are necessarily multifaceted. Moreover, cybersecurity is a dynamic process involving human attackers who continue to …[more]

Beyond Spectre: Confronting New Technical and Policy Challenges: Proceedings of a Workshop

Beyond Spectre: Confronting New Technical and Policy Challenges: Proceedings of a Workshop

In 2017, researchers discovered a vulnerability in microprocessors used in computers and devices all over the world. The vulnerability, named Spectre, combines side effects from caching and speculative execution, which are techniques that have been used for many years to increase the speed at …[more]

Recoverability as a First-Class Security Objective: Proceedings of a Workshop

Recoverability as a First-Class Security Objective: Proceedings of a Workshop

The Forum on Cyber Resilience of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted the Workshop on Recoverability as a First-Class Security Objective on February 8, 2018, in Washington, D.C. The workshop featured presentations from several experts in industry, research, and …[more]

Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy

Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy

During the 2016 presidential election, America’s election infrastructure was targeted by actors sponsored by the Russian government. Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy examines the challenges arising out of the 2016 federal election, assesses current technology and standards for …[more]

Software Update as a Mechanism for Resilience and Security: Proceedings of a Workshop

Software Update as a Mechanism for Resilience and Security: Proceedings of a Workshop

Software update is an important mechanism by which security changes and improvements are made in software, and this seemingly simple concept encompasses a wide variety of practices, mechanisms, policies, and technologies. To explore the landscape further, the Forum on Cyber Resilience hosted a …[more]

Data Breach Aftermath and Recovery for Individuals and Institutions: Proceedings of a Workshop

Data Breach Aftermath and Recovery for Individuals and Institutions: Proceedings of a Workshop

In January 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted the Workshop on Data Breach Aftermath and Recovery for Individuals and Institutions. Participants examined existing technical and policy remediations, and they discussed possible new mechanisms for better …[more]

Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity

Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 140: Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity provides information designed to help reduce or mitigate inherent risks of cyberattacks on technology-based systems.

Traditional IT infrastructure such as servers, …[more]

At the Nexus of Cybersecurity and Public Policy: Some Basic Concepts and Issues

At the Nexus of Cybersecurity and Public Policy: Some Basic Concepts and Issues

We depend on information and information technology (IT) to make many of our day-to-day tasks easier and more convenient. Computers play key roles in transportation, health care, banking, and energy. Businesses use IT for payroll and accounting, inventory and sales, and research and development. …[more]

Professionalizing the Nation's Cybersecurity Workforce?: Criteria for Decision-Making

Professionalizing the Nation’s Cybersecurity Workforce?: Criteria for Decision-Making

Professionalizing the Nation’s Cybersecurity Workforce? Criteria for Decision-Making considers approaches to increasing the professionalization of the nation’s cybersecurity workforce. This report examines workforce requirements for cybersecurity and the segments and job functions in …[more]

Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy

Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy

In a world of increasing dependence on information technology, the prevention of cyberattacks on a nation’s important computer and communications systems and networks is a problem that looms large. Given the demonstrated limitations of passive cybersecurity defense measures, it is natural to …[more]

Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities

Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities

The United States is increasingly dependent on information and information technology for both civilian and military purposes, as are many other nations. Although there is a substantial literature on the potential impact of a cyberattack on the societal infrastructure of the United States, …[more]

Artificial Intelligence – Impacts and Opportunities

Rapid advances in machine learning systems have seen artificial intelligence (AI) enter everyday usage, with development of applications across fields including healthcare, transportation, and finance expected over the coming decades. The societal and economic opportunities that follow these advances are significant, and nations are grappling with how artificial intelligence might best serve society. Our publications explore the impact of AI and the changing opportunities and challenges associated with its development.

Information Technology Innovation: Resurgence, Confluence, and Continuing Impact

Information Technology Innovation: Resurgence, Confluence, and Continuing Impact

Information technology (IT) is widely understood to be the enabling technology of the 21st century. IT has transformed, and continues to transform, all aspects of our lives: commerce and finance, education, energy, health care, manufacturing, government, national security, transportation, …[more]

Implications of Artificial Intelligence for Cybersecurity: Proceedings of a Workshop

Implications of Artificial Intelligence for Cybersecurity: Proceedings of a Workshop

In recent years, interest and progress in the area of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have boomed, with new applications vigorously pursued across many sectors. At the same time, the computing and communications technologies on which we have come to rely present serious …[more]

Data Matters: Ethics, Data, and International Research Collaboration in a Changing World: Proceedings of a Workshop

Data Matters: Ethics, Data, and International Research Collaboration in a Changing World: Proceedings of a Workshop

In an increasingly interconnected world, perhaps it should come as no surprise that international collaboration in science and technology research is growing at a remarkable rate. As science and technology capabilities grow around the world, U.S.-based organizations are finding that …[more]

Privacy and Security in the 21st Century: Who Knows and Who Controls?: Proceedings of a Forum

Privacy and Security in the 21st Century: Who Knows and Who Controls?: Proceedings of a Forum

New technologies and capabilities, such as Google Cloud and artificial intelligence, are changing the world at an unprecedented rate. A transition to cloud computing offers a variety of benefits, including worldwide access and faster networks. This digital transformation also presents an array …[more]

Robust Machine Learning Algorithms and Systems for Detection and Mitigation of Adversarial Attacks and Anomalies: Proceedings of a Workshop

Robust Machine Learning Algorithms and Systems for Detection and Mitigation of Adversarial Attacks and Anomalies: Proceedings of a Workshop

The Intelligence Community Studies Board (ICSB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop on December 11–12, 2018, in Berkeley, California, to discuss robust machine learning algorithms and systems for the detection and mitigation of adversarial …[more]

Artificial Intelligence: An International Dialogue: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Artificial Intelligence: An International Dialogue: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

On May 24, 2019 the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, in partnership with the Royal Society, held a symposium entitled Artificial Intelligence: An International Dialogue in Washington, DC. The symposium addressed if and how artificial intelligence (AI) would benefit from …[more]

Artificial Intelligence Applications for Older Adults and People with Disabilities: Balancing Safety and Autonomy: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Artificial Intelligence Applications for Older Adults and People with Disabilities: Balancing Safety and Autonomy: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

On October 24, 2018, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop titled Artificial Intel¬ligence Applications for Older Adults and People with Disabilities: Balancing Safety and Autonomy. This workshop examined the state of the art and knowledge about …[more]

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to Accelerate Translational Research: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to Accelerate Translational Research: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

The big data revolution, accompanied by the development and deployment of wearable medical devices and mobile health applications, has enabled the biomedical community to apply artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning algorithms to vast amounts of data. This shift has created new …[more]

Leveraging Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to Advance Environmental Health Research and Decisions: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Leveraging Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to Advance Environmental Health Research and Decisions: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a technological invention that promises to transform everyday life and the world. Investment and enthusiasm for AI—or the ability of machines to carry out “smart” tasks—are driven largely by advancements in the subfield of machine learning. Machine …[more]

The Frontiers of Machine Learning: 2017 Raymond and Beverly Sackler U.S.-U.K. Scientific Forum

The Frontiers of Machine Learning: 2017 Raymond and Beverly Sackler U.S.-U.K. Scientific Forum

The field of machine learning continues to advance at a rapid pace owing to increased computing power, better algorithms and tools, and greater availability of data. Machine learning is now being used in a range of applications, including transportation and developing automated vehicles, …[more]

Resources to Build Health Literacy

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of health literate communication. Health literacy empowers patients to be able to obtain and understand their healthcare information, and is particularly important when communicating with those with limited health literacy who also experience more serious medication errors, higher rates of hospitalization, poor health outcomes, and increased mortality. These publications support the development, implementation and sharing of evidence-based health literacy practices and policies. All are free to download.

Developing Health Literacy Skills in Children and Youth: Proceedings of a Workshop

Developing Health Literacy Skills in Children and Youth: Proceedings of a Workshop

Young people develop health literacy skills in a variety of environments, facing critical thinking challenges about their health from school, home and family life, peers and social life, and online. To explore the development of health literacy skills in youth, the Roundtable on Health Literacy …[more]

The Intersection of Behavioral Health, Mental Health, and Health Literacy: Proceedings of a Workshop

The Intersection of Behavioral Health, Mental Health, and Health Literacy: Proceedings of a Workshop

The field of health literacy has evolved from early efforts that focused on individuals to its current recognition that health literacy is a multidimensional team and system function. Health literacy includes system demands and complexities as well as individual skills and abilities. While …[more]

Health Literacy and Older Adults: Reshaping the Landscape: Proceedings of a Workshop

Health Literacy and Older Adults: Reshaping the Landscape: Proceedings of a Workshop

Adults age 65 and older make up the fastest-growing segment of the U.S. population. At the same time, the complexity of health care delivery continues to grow, creating challenges that are magnified for older adults, given that age is one of the highest correlates of low health literacy. This …[more]

Building the Case for Health Literacy: Proceedings of a Workshop

Building the Case for Health Literacy: Proceedings of a Workshop

The field of health literacy has evolved from one focused on individuals to one that recognizes that health literacy is multidimensional. While communicating in a health literate manner is important for everyone, it is particularly important when communicating with those with limited health …[more]

Health Literacy and Consumer-Facing Technology: Workshop Summary

Health Literacy and Consumer-Facing Technology: Workshop Summary

The proliferation of consumer-facing technology and personal health information technology has grown steadily over the past decade, and has certainly exploded over the past several years. Many people have embraced smartphones and wearable health-monitoring devices to track their fitness and …[more]

Integrating Health Literacy, Cultural Competence, and Language Access Services: Workshop Summary

Integrating Health Literacy, Cultural Competence, and Language Access Services: Workshop Summary

The aging and evolving racial and ethnic composition of the U.S. population has the United States in the midst of a profound demographic shift and health care organizations face many issues as they move to address and adapt to this change. In their drive to adequately serve increasingly diverse …[more]

Health Literacy: Past, Present, and Future: Workshop Summary

Health Literacy: Past, Present, and Future: Workshop Summary

In 2004, the Institute of Medicine released Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion, a report on the then-underappreciated challenge of enabling patients to comprehend their condition and treatment, to make the best decisions for their care, and to take the right medications at …[more]

Informed Consent and Health Literacy: Workshop Summary

Informed Consent and Health Literacy: Workshop Summary

Informed consent – the process of communication between a patient or research subject and a physician or researcher that results in the explicit agreement to undergo a specific medical intervention – is an ethical concept based on the principle that all patients and research subjects should …[more]

Health Literacy and Numeracy: Workshop Summary

Health Literacy and Numeracy: Workshop Summary

Although health literacy is commonly defined as an individual trait, it does not depend on the skills of individuals alone. Health literacy is the product of the interaction between individuals’ capacities and the health literacy-related demands and complexities of the health care system. …[more]

Toward Health Equity and Patient-Centeredness: Integrating Health Literacy, Disparities Reduction, and Quality Improvement: Workshop Summary

Toward Health Equity and Patient-Centeredness: Integrating Health Literacy, Disparities Reduction, and Quality Improvement: Workshop Summary

To receive the greatest value for health care, it is important to focus on issues of quality and disparity, and the ability of individuals to make appropriate decisions based on basic health knowledge and services. The Forum on the Science of Health Care Quality Improvement and Implementation, …[more]

Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion

Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion

To maintain their own health and the health of their families and communities, consumers rely heavily on the health information that is available to them. This information is at the core of the partnerships that patients and their families forge with today’s complex modern health systems. …[more]

Building a STEMM Workforce for the 21st Century

In order to fully capitalize on twenty-first century advances, the United States needs to expand its science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM)-capable workforce. Evidence suggests that the nation will need 1 million more STEMM professionals than it is on track to produce in the coming decade. Our titles explore the current status of the STEMM workforce and offer a comprehensive road map for increasing the quantity and diversity of the individuals who enter STEMM fields. As always, all are free to read online or download.

Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors

Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors

Careers in science, engineering, and medicine offer opportunities to advance knowledge, contribute to the well-being of communities, and support the security, prosperity, and health of the United States. But many women do not pursue or persist in these careers, or advance to leadership positions …[more]

The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM

The Science of Effective Mentorship in STEMM

Mentorship is a catalyst capable of unleashing one’s potential for discovery, curiosity, and participation in STEMM and subsequently improving the training environment in which that STEMM potential is fostered. Mentoring relationships provide developmental spaces in which students’ STEMM skills …[more]

Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce

Minority Serving Institutions: America’s Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce

There are over 20 million young people of color in the United States whose representation in STEM education pathways and in the STEM workforce is still far below their numbers in the general population. Their participation could help re-establish the United States’ preeminence in STEM …[more]

Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Over the last few decades, research, activity, and funding has been devoted to improving the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in the fields of science, engineering, and medicine. In recent years the diversity of those participating in these fields, particularly the participation …[more]

Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century

Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century

The U.S. system of graduate education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has served the nation and its science and engineering enterprise extremely well. Over the course of their education, graduate students become involved in advancing the frontiers of discovery, as …[more]

An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop

An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop

Black men are increasingly underrepresented in medical schools and in the medical profession. A diverse workforce is a key attribute of quality healthcare and research suggests that a diverse workforce may help to advance cultural competency and increase access to high-quality health care, …[more]

The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through

The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through

Since the end of the Second World War, the United States has developed the world’s preeminent system for biomedical research, one that has given rise to revolutionary medical advances as well as a dynamic and innovative business sector generating high-quality jobs and powering economic output …[more]

Assessing and Responding to the Growth of Computer Science Undergraduate Enrollments

Assessing and Responding to the Growth of Computer Science Undergraduate Enrollments

The field of computer science (CS) is currently experiencing a surge in undergraduate degree production and course enrollments, which is straining program resources at many institutions and causing concern among faculty and administrators about how best to respond to the rapidly growing demand. …[more]

Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce

Building America’s Skilled Technical Workforce

Skilled technical occupations—defined as occupations that require a high level of knowledge in a technical domain but do not require a bachelor’s degree for entry—are a key component of the U.S. economy. In response to globalization and advances in science and technology, American firms …[more]

Barriers and Opportunities for 2-Year and 4-Year STEM Degrees: Systemic Change to Support Students' Diverse Pathways

Barriers and Opportunities for 2-Year and 4-Year STEM Degrees: Systemic Change to Support Students’ Diverse Pathways

Nearly 40 percent of the students entering 2- and 4-year postsecondary institutions indicated their intention to major in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in 2012. But the barriers to students realizing their ambitions are reflected in the fact that about half of those …[more]

Seeking Solutions: Maximizing American Talent by Advancing Women of Color in Academia: Summary of a Conference

Seeking Solutions: Maximizing American Talent by Advancing Women of Color in Academia: Summary of a Conference

Seeking Solutions: Maximizing American Talent by Advancing Women of Color in Academia is the summary of a 2013 conference convened by the Committee on Women in Science, Engineering and Medicine of the National Research Council to discuss the current status of women of color in academia …[more]

Graduate Medical Education That Meets the Nation's Health Needs

Graduate Medical Education That Meets the Nation’s Health Needs

Today’s physician education system produces trained doctors with strong scientific underpinnings in biological and physical sciences as well as supervised practical experience in delivering care. Significant financial public support underlies the graduate-level training of the nation’s …[more]

The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health

The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health

The Future of Nursing explores how nurses’ roles, responsibilities, and education should change significantly to meet the increased demand for care that will be created by health care reform and to advance improvements in America’s increasingly complex health system.

At …[more]

Resources to Support Quality Education in a COVID-19 World

On World Teachers Day we celebrate all the ways that teachers touch our lives and thank them for educating and inspiring. The COVID-19 pandemic has completely upended education systems and has required teachers to find new ways to connect with and motivate students. Our resources can inform and enhance efforts to support vulnerable populations, reopen schools, and provide remote learning while maintaining quality learning experiences. All are free to download.

Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities

Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented unprecedented challenges to the nation’s K-12 education system. The rush to slow the spread of the virus led to closures of schools across the country, with little time to ensure continuity of instruction or to create a framework for deciding when and how to …[more]

Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis

Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis

The COVID-19 pandemic is resulting in widespread and ongoing changes to how the K55 education system functions, including disruptions to science teaching and learning environments. Students and teachers are all figuring out how to do schooling differently, and districts and states are working …[more]

Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace

Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace

Teachers play a critical role in the success of their students, both academically and in regard to long term outcomes such as higher education participation and economic attainment. Expectations for teachers are increasing due to changing learning standards and a rapidly diversifying student …[more]

English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives

English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives

The imperative that all students, including English learners (ELs), achieve high academic standards and have opportunities to participate in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning has become even more urgent and complex given shifts in science and mathematics …[more]

Science and Engineering for Grades 6-12: Investigation and Design at the Center

Science and Engineering for Grades 6-12: Investigation and Design at the Center

It is essential for today’s students to learn about science and engineering in order to make sense of the world around them and participate as informed members of a democratic society. The skills and ways of thinking that are developed and honed through engaging in scientific and engineering …[more]

Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments

Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments

Practitioners in informal science settings–museums, after-school programs, science and technology centers, media enterprises, libraries, aquariums, zoos, and botanical gardens–are interested in finding out what learning looks like, how to measure it, and what they can do to ensure that people …[more]

Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures

Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures

Educating dual language learners (DLLs) and English learners (ELs) effectively is a national challenge with consequences both for individuals and for American society. Despite their linguistic, cognitive, and social potential, many ELs—who account for more than 9 percent of enrollment in …[more]

Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K-12 Education

Building Capacity for Teaching Engineering in K-12 Education

Engineering education is emerging as an important component of US K-12 education. Across the country, students in classrooms and after- and out-of-school programs are participating in hands-on, problem-focused learning activities using the engineering design process. These experiences can be …[more]

Ready, Set, SCIENCE!: Putting Research to Work in K-8 Science Classrooms

Ready, Set, SCIENCE!: Putting Research to Work in K-8 Science Classrooms

What types of instructional experiences help K-8 students learn science with understanding? What do science educators, teachers, teacher leaders, science specialists, professional development staff, curriculum designers, and school administrators need to know to create and support such …[more]

A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas

A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas

Science, engineering, and technology permeate nearly every facet of modern life and hold the key to solving many of humanity’s most pressing current and future challenges. The United States’ position in the global economy is declining, in part because U.S. workers lack fundamental knowledge in …[more]

Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States

Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States

Next Generation Science Standards identifies the science all K-12 students should know. These new standards are based on the National Research Council’s A Framework for K-12 Science Education. The National Research Council, the National Science Teachers Association, the …[more]