Resources to Act, Innovate, and Implement Change for a Better Earth

Celebrate Earth Day by exploring resources that outline actions we can take to address Earth’s biggest challenges. Our publications present guidance for policymakers, communities, and even individuals on topics such as climate change, pollution in the ocean, and sustainable ways to provide power, feed people, and provide services to cities and communities. As always, all are free to read online and download.

Biodiversity at Risk: Today's Choices Matter

Biodiversity at Risk: Today’s Choices Matter

A growing body of evidence has sounded the alarm that the biodiversity that supports and sustains life on Earth is at risk. Habitat destruction, resource exploitation, and climate change are among the many stressors that have put 1 million species under threat of extinction and sharply reduced the populations of many plant and animal species. …[more]

A Research Strategy for Ocean-based Carbon Dioxide Removal and Sequestration

A Research Strategy for Ocean-based Carbon Dioxide Removal and Sequestration

As of 2021, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have reached historically unprecedented levels, higher than at any time in the past 800,000 years. Worldwide efforts to reduce emissions by creating a more efficient, carbon-free energy system may not be enough to stabilize the climate and avoid the worst impacts of climate change. Carbon dioxide …[more]

Reckoning with the U.S. Role in Global Ocean Plastic Waste

Reckoning with the U.S. Role in Global Ocean Plastic Waste

An estimated 8 million metric tons (MMT) of plastic waste enters the world’s ocean each year – the equivalent of dumping a garbage truck of plastic waste into the ocean every minute. Plastic waste is now found in almost every marine habitat, from the ocean surface to deep sea sediments to the ocean’s vast mid-water region, as well as the Great …[more]

Motivating Local Climate Adaptation and Strengthening Resilience: Making Local Data Trusted, Useful, and Used

Motivating Local Climate Adaptation and Strengthening Resilience: Making Local Data Trusted, Useful, and Used

Local communities are already experiencing dire effects caused by climate change that are expected to increase in frequency, intensity, duration, and type. Public concern about climate-related challenges is increasing, available information and resources on climate risks are expanding, and cities across the country and the globe are developing …[more]

Enhancing Community Resilience through Social Capital and Connectedness: Stronger Together!

Enhancing Community Resilience through Social Capital and Connectedness: Stronger Together!

Disasters caused by natural hazards and other large-scale emergencies are devastating communities in the United States. These events harm individuals, families, communities, and the entire country, including its economy and the federal budget. This report identifies applied research topics, information, and expertise that can inform action and …[more]

The Challenge of Feeding the World Sustainably: Summary of the US-UK Scientific Forum on Sustainable Agriculture

The Challenge of Feeding the World Sustainably: Summary of the US-UK Scientific Forum on Sustainable Agriculture

The need for sustainable agriculture is becoming ever more significant. The world’s population is still increasing, requiring more from our agricultural systems. Malnutrition and diet-related illnesses are present in nearly all societies. At the same time, agriculture plays a significant role in some of the biggest environmental challenges that …[more]

Accelerating Decarbonization of the U.S. Energy System

Accelerating Decarbonization of the U.S. Energy System

The world is transforming its energy system from one dominated by fossil fuel combustion to one with net-zero emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary anthropogenic greenhouse gas. This energy transition is critical to mitigating climate change, protecting human health, and revitalizing the U.S. economy. To help policymakers, businesses, …[more]

Assessment of Technologies for Improving Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy—2025-2035

Assessment of Technologies for Improving Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy—2025-2035

From daily commutes to cross-country road trips, millions of light-duty vehicles are on the road every day. The transportation sector is one of the United States’ largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, and fuel is an important cost for drivers. The period from 2025-2035 could bring the most fundamental transformation in the 100-plus …[more]

Global Change Research Needs and Opportunities for 2022-2031

Global Change Research Needs and Opportunities for 2022-2031

The US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is a collection of 13 Federal entities charged by law to assist the United States and the world to understand, assess, predict, and respond to human-induced and natural processes of global change. Global Change Research Needs and Opportunities for 2022-2031 advises the USGCRP on how best to …[more]

A National Strategy to Reduce Food Waste at the Consumer Level

A National Strategy to Reduce Food Waste at the Consumer Level

Approximately 30 percent of the edible food produced in the United States is wasted and a significant portion of this waste occurs at the consumer level. Despite food’s essential role as a source of nutrients and energy and its emotional and cultural importance, U.S. consumers waste an estimated average of 1 pound of food per person per day at …[more]

Reflecting Sunlight: Recommendations for Solar Geoengineering Research and Research Governance

Reflecting Sunlight: Recommendations for Solar Geoengineering Research and Research Governance

Climate change is creating impacts that are widespread and severe for individuals, communities, economies, and ecosystems around the world. While efforts to reduce emissions and adapt to climate impacts are the first line of defense, researchers are exploring other options to reduce warming. Solar geoengineering strategies are designed to cool …[more]

A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs

A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs

Coral reefs are critical to ocean and human life because they provide food, living area, storm protection, tourism income, and more. However, human-induced stressors, such as overfishing, sediment, pollution, and habitat destruction have threatened ocean ecosystems globally for decades. In the face of climate change, these ecosystems now face …[more]

A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs

A Research Review of Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs

Coral reef declines have been recorded for all major tropical ocean basins since the 1980s, averaging approximately 30-50% reductions in reef cover globally. These losses are a result of numerous problems, including habitat destruction, pollution, overfishing, disease, and climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions and the associated increases in …[more]

Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States

Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States

Cities have experienced an unprecedented rate of growth in the last decade. More than half the world’s population lives in urban areas, with the U.S. percentage at 80 percent. Cities have captured more than 80 percent of the globe’s economic activity and offered social mobility and economic prosperity to millions by clustering creative, …[more]

Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation Along Existing Roads—ActiveTrans Priority Tool Guidebook

Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation Along Existing Roads—ActiveTrans Priority Tool Guidebook

TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 803: Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation Along Existing Roads—ActiveTrans Priority Tool Guidebook presents a tool and guidance that may be used to help prioritize improvements to pedestrian and bicycle facilities, either …[more]

Remarks of President Joe Biden – State of the Union Address As Prepared for Delivery, Annotated

THE PRESIDENT: Madam Speaker, Madam Vice President, our First Lady and Second Gentleman. Members of Congress and the Cabinet. Justices of the Supreme Court. My fellow Americans. 

Last year COVID-19 kept us apart. This year we are finally together again.

Tonight, we meet as Democrats Republicans and Independents. But most importantly as Americans.

With a duty to one another to the American people to the Constitution.

And with an unwavering resolve that freedom will always triumph over tyranny.

Six days ago, Russia’s Vladimir Putin sought to shake the foundations of the free world thinking he could make it bend to his menacing ways. But he badly miscalculated.

He thought he could roll into Ukraine and the world would roll over. Instead he met a wall of strength he never imagined.

He met the Ukrainian people.

From President Zelenskyy to every Ukrainian, their fearlessness, their courage, their determination, inspires the world.

Groups of citizens blocking tanks with their bodies. Everyone from students to retirees teachers turned soldiers defending their homeland.

In this struggle as President Zelenskyy said in his speech to the European Parliament “Light will win over darkness.” The Ukrainian Ambassador to the United States is here tonight.

Let each of us here tonight in this Chamber send an unmistakable signal to Ukraine and to the world.

Please rise if you are able and show that, Yes, we the United States of America stand with the Ukrainian people.

Throughout our history we’ve learned this lesson when dictators do not pay a price for their aggression they cause more chaos.  

They keep moving.  

And the costs and the threats to America and the world keep rising.  

That’s why the NATO Alliance was created to secure peace and stability in Europe after World War 2.

The United States is a member along with 29 other nations.

It matters. American diplomacy matters. American resolve matters.

Putin’s latest attack on Ukraine was premeditated and unprovoked.

He rejected repeated efforts at diplomacy.

He thought the West and NATO wouldn’t respond.

And he thought he could divide us at home. Putin was wrong. We were ready.  Here is what we did.  

We prepared extensively and carefully.

We spent months building a coalition of other freedom-loving nations from Europe and the Americas to Asia and Africa to confront Putin.

I spent countless hours unifying our European allies. We shared with the world in advance what we knew Putin was planning and precisely how he would try to falsely justify his aggression. 

We countered Russia’s lies with truth.  

And now that he has acted the free world is 

holding him accountable.

Along with twenty-seven members of the European Union including France, Germany, Italy, as well as countries like  the United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, Korea, Australia, New Zealand, and many others, even Switzerland.

We are inflicting pain on Russia and supporting the people of Ukraine. Putin is now isolated from the world more than ever.

Together with our allies –we are right now enforcing powerful economic sanctions.

We are cutting off Russia’s largest banks from the international financial system. 

Preventing Russia’s central bank from defending the Russian Ruble making Putin’s $630 Billion “war fund” worthless.  

We are choking off Russia’s access to technology that will sap its economic strength and weaken its military for years to come. 

Tonight I say to the Russian oligarchs and corrupt leaders who have bilked billions of dollars off this violent regime no more.

The U.S. Department of Justice is assembling a dedicated task force to go after the crimes of Russian oligarchs. 

We are joining with our European allies to find and seize your yachts your luxury apartments your private jets. We are coming for your ill-begotten gains.

And tonight I am announcing that we will join our allies in closing off American air space to all Russian flights – further isolating Russia – and adding an additional squeeze –on their economy. The Ruble has lost 30% of its value.

The Russian stock market has lost 40% of its value and trading remains suspended. Russia’s economy is reeling and Putin alone is to blame.

Together with our allies we are providing support to the Ukrainians in their fight for freedom. Military assistance. Economic assistance. Humanitarian assistance.

We are giving more than $1 Billion in direct assistance to Ukraine.

And we will continue to aid the Ukrainian people as they defend their country and to help ease their suffering. 

Let me be clear, our forces are not engaged and will not engage in conflict with Russian forces in Ukraine. 

Our forces are not going to Europe to fight in Ukraine, but to defend our NATO Allies – in the event that Putin decides to keep moving west. 

For that purpose we’ve mobilized American ground forces, air squadrons, and ship deployments to protect NATO countries including Poland, Romania, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia.

As I have made crystal clear the United States and our Allies will defend every inch of territory of NATO countries with the full force of our collective power. 

And we remain clear-eyed. The Ukrainians are fighting back with pure courage. But the next few days weeks, months, will be hard on them. 

Putin has unleashed violence and chaos.  But while he may make gains on the battlefield – he will pay a continuing high price over the long run.

And a proud Ukrainian people, who have known 30 years  of independence, have repeatedly shown that they will not tolerate anyone who tries to take their country backwards. 

To all Americans, I will be honest with you, as I’ve always promised. A Russian dictator, invading a foreign country, has costs around the world.

And I’m taking robust action to make sure the pain of our sanctions  is targeted at Russia’s economy. And I will use every tool at our disposal to protect American businesses and consumers.

Tonight, I can announce that the United States has worked with 30 other countries to release 60 Million barrels of oil from reserves around the world. 

America will lead that effort, releasing 30 Million barrels from our own Strategic Petroleum Reserve.  And we stand ready to do more if necessary, unified with our allies. 

These steps will help blunt gas prices here at home. And I know the news about what’s happening can seem alarming.

But I want you to know that we are going to be okay.

When the history of this era is written Putin’s war on Ukraine will have left Russia weaker and the rest of the world stronger.

While it shouldn’t have taken something so terrible for people around the world to see what’s at stake now everyone sees it clearly.

We see the unity among leaders of nations and a more unified Europe a more unified West. And we see unity among the people who are gathering in cities in large crowds around the world even in Russia to demonstrate their support for Ukraine. 

In the battle between democracy and autocracy, democracies are rising to the moment, and the world is clearly choosing the side of peace and security.

This is a real test. It’s going to take time. So let us continue to draw inspiration from the iron will of the Ukrainian people.

To our fellow Ukrainian Americans who forge a deep bond that connects our two nations we stand with you.

Putin may circle Kyiv with tanks, but he will never gain the hearts and souls of the Ukrainian people.

He will never extinguish their love of freedom. He will never weaken the resolve of the free world.

We meet tonight in an America that has lived through two of the hardest years this nation has ever faced.

The pandemic has been punishing.

And so many families are living paycheck to paycheck, struggling to keep up with the rising cost of food, gas, housing, and so much more.

I understand.

I remember when my Dad had to leave our home in Scranton, Pennsylvania to find work.

I grew up in a family where if the price of food went up, you felt it.

That’s why one of the first things I did as President was fight to pass the American Rescue Plan. 

Because people were hurting. We needed to act, and we did.

Few pieces of legislation have done more in a critical moment in our history to lift us out of crisis.

It fueled our efforts to vaccinate the nation and combat COVID-19. It delivered immediate economic relief for tens of millions of Americans. 

Helped put food on their table, keep a roof over their heads, and cut the cost of health insurance.

And as my Dad used to say, it gave people a little breathing room.

And unlike the $2 Trillion tax cut passed in the previous administration that benefitted the top 1% of Americans, the American Rescue Plan helped working people—and left no one behind.

And it worked. It created jobs. Lots of jobs.

In fact—our economy created over 6.5 Million new jobs just last year, more jobs created in one year 

than ever before in the history of America.

Our economy grew at a rate of 5.7% last year, the strongest growth in nearly 40 years, the first step in bringing fundamental change to an economy that hasn’t worked for the working people of this nation for too long. 

For the past 40 years we were told that if we gave tax breaks to those at the very top, the benefits would trickle down to everyone else.

But that trickle-down theory led to weaker economic growth, lower wages, bigger deficits, and the widest gap between those at the top and everyone else in nearly a century.

Vice President Harris and I ran for office with a new economic vision for America.

Invest in America. Educate Americans. Grow the workforce. Build the economy from the bottom up 

and the middle out, not from the top down. 

Because we know that when the middle class grows, the poor have a ladder up and the wealthy do very well.

America used to have the best roads, bridges, and airports on Earth.

Now our infrastructure is ranked 13th in the world.

We won’t be able to compete for the jobs of the 21st Century if we don’t fix that.

That’s why it was so important to pass the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law—the most sweeping investment to rebuild America in history.

This was a bipartisan effort, and I want to thank 

the members of both parties who worked to make it happen.

We’re done talking about infrastructure weeks.

We’re going to have an infrastructure decade.

It is going to transform America and put us on a path to win the economic competition of the 21st Century 

that we face with the rest of the world—particularly with China. 

As I’ve told Xi Jinping, it is never a good bet to bet against the American people.

We’ll create good jobs for millions of Americans, modernizing roads, airports, ports, and waterways all across America.

And we’ll do it all to withstand the devastating effects of the climate crisis and promote environmental justice.

Investing in Transportation Resilience: A Framework for Informed Choices

Investing in Transportation Resilience: A Framework for Informed Choices

Significant progress has been made over the last decade in integrating resilience criteria into transportation decision-making. A compelling case remains for investing in making transportation projects more resilient in the face of increasing and intensifying storms, floods, droughts, and other …[more]

Motivating Local Climate Adaptation and Strengthening Resilience: Making Local Data Trusted, Useful, and Used

Motivating Local Climate Adaptation and Strengthening Resilience: Making Local Data Trusted, Useful, and Used

Local communities are already experiencing dire effects caused by climate change that are expected to increase in frequency, intensity, duration, and type. Public concern about climate-related challenges is increasing, available information and resources on climate risks are expanding, and …[more]

Perspectives on Climate and Environmental Justice on the U.S. Gulf Coast: Proceedings of a Webinar–in Brief

Perspectives on Climate and Environmental Justice on the U.S. Gulf Coast: Proceedings of a Webinar–in Brief

Communities along the Gulf Coast routinely experience intense weather events. Acute and repetitive shocks – illustrated by the multiple Gulf regional hurricane landfalls during the 2020 hurricane season – have a disproportionate impact on communities in this region that are already burdened by …[more]

Climate-Resilient Supply Chains: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Climate-Resilient Supply Chains: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

As the COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated, the global supply chain is vulnerable to major disruptions from unanticipated events, yet no threat to the functioning of essential supply chains looms larger than the growing number of extreme weather events resulting from climate change. Indeed, the …[more]

Enhancing Community Resilience through Social Capital and Connectedness: Stronger Together!

Enhancing Community Resilience through Social Capital and Connectedness: Stronger Together!

Disasters caused by natural hazards and other large-scale emergencies are devastating communities in the United States. These events harm individuals, families, communities, and the entire country, including its economy and the federal budget. This report identifies applied research topics, …[more]

We’ll build a national network of 500,000 electric vehicle charging stations, begin to replace poisonous lead pipes—so every child—and every American—has clean water to drink at home and at school, provide affordable high-speed internet for every American—urban, suburban, rural, and tribal communities.

4,000 projects have already been announced.

And tonight, I’m announcing that this year we will start fixing over 65,000 miles of highway and 1,500 bridges in disrepair.

Renewing the National Commitment to the Interstate Highway System: A Foundation for the Future

Renewing the National Commitment to the Interstate Highway System: A Foundation for the Future

TRB Special Report 329: Renewing the National Commitment to the Interstate Highway System: A Foundation for the Future explores pending and future federal investment and policy decisions concerning the federal Interstate Highway System. Congress asked the committee to make recommendations on the …[more]

Consequences of Delayed Maintenance of Highway Assets

Consequences of Delayed Maintenance of Highway Assets

TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 859: Consequences of Delayed Maintenance of Highway Assets presents a process for quantifying the consequences of delayed maintenance of highway assets that considers the asset preservation policy, the maintenance and …[more]

When we use taxpayer dollars to rebuild America – we are going to Buy American: buy American products to support American jobs.

The federal government spends about $600 Billion a year to keep the country safe and secure.

There’s been a law on the books for almost a century to make sure taxpayers’ dollars support American jobs and businesses.

Every Administration says they’ll do it, but we are actually doing it.

We will buy American to make sure everything from  the deck of an aircraft carrier to the steel on highway guardrails are made in America.

But to compete for the best jobs of the future, we also need to level the playing field with China and other competitors. That’s why it is so important to pass the Bipartisan Innovation Act sitting in Congress that will make record investments in emerging technologies and American manufacturing.

Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey

Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey

Modern materials science builds on knowledge from physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, computer and data science, and engineering sciences to enable us to understand, control, and expand the material world. Although it is anchored in inquiry-based fundamental science, materials research is …[more]

Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration

Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security, and Exploration

Plasma Science and Engineering transforms fundamental scientific research into powerful societal applications, from materials processing and healthcare to forecasting space weather. Plasma Science: Enabling Technology, Sustainability, Security and Exploration discusses the importance of plasma …[more]

Manipulating Quantum Systems: An Assessment of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics in the United States

Manipulating Quantum Systems: An Assessment of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics in the United States

The field of atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) science underpins many technologies and continues to progress at an exciting pace for both scientific discoveries and technological innovations. AMO physics studies the fundamental building blocks of functioning matter to help advance the …[more]

Let me give you one example of why it’s so important to pass it.

If you travel 20 miles east of Columbus, Ohio, you’ll find 1,000 empty acres of land.

It won’t look like much, but if you stop and look closely, you’ll see a “Field of dreams,” the ground on which America’s future will be built.

This is where Intel, the American company that helped build Silicon Valley, is going to build its $20 billion semiconductor “mega site”.

Up to eight state-of-the-art factories in one place. 10,000 new good-paying jobs.

Some of the most sophisticated manufacturing in the world to make computer chips the size of a fingertip that power the world and our everyday lives.

Smartphones. The Internet. Technology we have yet to invent.

But that’s just the beginning.

Intel’s CEO, Pat Gelsinger, who is here tonight, told me they are ready to increase their investment from  $20 billion to $100 billion.

That would be one of the biggest investments in manufacturing in American history.

And all they’re waiting for is for you to pass this bill.

So let’s not wait any longer. Send it to my desk. I’ll sign it.  And we will really take off.

The New Global Ecosystem in Advanced Computing: Implications for U.S. Competitiveness and National Security

The New Global Ecosystem in Advanced Computing: Implications for U.S. Competitiveness and National Security

Computing and information and communications technology (ICT) has dramatically changed how we work and live, has had profound effects on nearly every sector of society, has transformed whole industries, and is a key component of U.S. global leadership. A fundamental driver of advances in …[more]

Quantum Computing: Progress and Prospects

Quantum Computing: Progress and Prospects

Quantum mechanics, the subfield of physics that describes the behavior of very small (quantum) particles, provides the basis for a new paradigm of computing. First proposed in the 1980s as a way to improve computational modeling of quantum systems, the field of quantum computing has recently …[more]

Securing the Future: Regional and National Programs to Support the Semiconductor Industry

Securing the Future: Regional and National Programs to Support the Semiconductor Industry

Based on the deliberations of a high-level international conference, this report summarizes the presentations of an exceptional group of experts, convened by Intel’s Chairman Emeritus Gordon Moore and SEMATECH’s Chairman Emeritus William Spencer. The report documents the critical technological …[more]

Productivity and Cyclicality in Semiconductors: Trends, Implications, and Questions: Report of a Symposium

Productivity and Cyclicality in Semiconductors: Trends, Implications, and Questions: Report of a Symposium

Hosted by Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government, this symposium brought together leading technologists and economists to review technical challenges facing the semiconductor industry, the industry’s business cycle, the interconnections between the two, and the implications of growth …[more]

Getting Up to Speed: The Future of Supercomputing

Getting Up to Speed: The Future of Supercomputing

Supercomputers play a significant and growing role in a variety of areas important to the nation. They are used to address challenging science and technology problems. In recent years, however, progress in supercomputing in the United States has slowed. The development of the Earth Simulator …[more]

And Intel is not alone.

There’s something happening in America.

Just look around and you’ll see an amazing story.

The rebirth of the pride that comes from stamping products “Made In America.” The revitalization of American manufacturing.  

Companies are choosing to build new factories here, when just a few years ago, they would have built them overseas.

That’s what is happening. Ford is investing $11 billion to build electric vehicles, creating 11,000 jobs across the country.

GM is making the largest investment in its history—$7 billion to build electric vehicles, creating 4,000 jobs in Michigan. All told, we created 369,000 new manufacturing jobs in America just last year.

Exploiting Advanced Manufacturing Capabilities: Topology Optimization in Design: Proceedings of a Workshop

Exploiting Advanced Manufacturing Capabilities: Topology Optimization in Design: Proceedings of a Workshop

Topology optimization is a digital method for designing objects in order to achieve the best structural performance, sometimes in combination with other physical requirements. Topology optimization tools use mathematical algorithms, such as the finite element method and gradient computation, to …[more]

Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World: A DoD Perspective: Proceedings of a Workshop

Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World: A DoD Perspective: Proceedings of a Workshop

Advances in materials science and engineering play a crucial role in supporting the U.S. economy and national security. To maintain its leading edge in the field, the United States relies on a rich and diverse innovation ecosystem encompassing industry, academic institutions, and government …[more]

Powered by people I’ve met like JoJo Burgess, from generations of union steelworkers from Pittsburgh, who’s here with us tonight.

As Ohio Senator Sherrod Brown says, “It’s time to bury the label “Rust Belt.”

It’s time.

But with all the bright spots in our economy, record job growth and higher wages, too many families are struggling to keep up with the bills. 

Inflation is robbing them of the gains they might otherwise feel.

I get it. That’s why my top priority is getting prices under control.

Look, our economy roared back faster than most predicted, but the pandemic meant that businesses had a hard time hiring enough workers to keep up production in their factories.

The pandemic also disrupted global supply chains.

When factories close, it takes longer to make goods  and get them from the warehouse to the store, and prices go up.

Look at cars.

Last year, there weren’t enough semiconductors to make all the cars that people wanted to buy.

And guess what, prices of automobiles went up.

So—we have a choice.

One way to fight inflation is to drive down wages  and make Americans poorer. 

I have a better plan to fight inflation.

Lower your costs, not your wages.

Make more cars and semiconductors in America.

More infrastructure and innovation in America.

More goods moving faster and cheaper in America.

More jobs where you can earn a good living in America.

And instead of relying on foreign supply chains, let’s make it in America.

Economists call it “increasing the productive capacity of our economy.”

I call it building a better America.

My plan to fight inflation will lower your costs and lower the deficit.

17 Nobel laureates in economics say my plan will ease long-term inflationary pressures. Top business leaders and most Americans support my plan. And here’s the plan:

First – cut the cost of prescription drugs. Just look at insulin. One in ten Americans has diabetes. In Virginia, I met a 13-year-old boy named Joshua Davis. 

He and his Dad both have Type 1 diabetes, which means they need insulin every day. Insulin costs about $10 a vial to make. 

But drug companies charge families like Joshua and his Dad up to 30 times more. I spoke with Joshua’s mom.

Imagine what it’s like to look at your child who needs insulin and have no idea how you’re going to pay for it. 

What it does to your dignity, your ability to look your child in the eye, to be the parent you expect to be.

Joshua is here with us tonight. Yesterday was his birthday. Happy birthday, buddy. 

For Joshua, and for the 200,000 other young people with Type 1 diabetes, let’s cap the cost of insulin at $35 a month so everyone can afford it.  Drug companies will still do very well. And while we’re at it let Medicare negotiate lower prices for prescription drugs, like the VA already does.

Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative

Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative

Thanks to remarkable advances in modern health care attributable to science, engineering, and medicine, it is now possible to cure or manage illnesses that were long deemed untreatable. At the same time, however, the United States is facing the vexing challenge of a seemingly uncontrolled rise …[more]

Look, the American Rescue Plan is helping millions of families on Affordable Care Act plans save $2,400 a year on their health care premiums. Let’s close the coverage gap and make those savings permanent.

Second – cut energy costs for families an average of $500 a year by combatting climate change. 

Let’s provide investments and tax credits to weatherize your homes and businesses to be energy efficient and you get a tax credit; 

Double America’s clean energy production in solar, wind, and so much more.

Accelerating Decarbonization of the U.S. Energy System

Accelerating Decarbonization of the U.S. Energy System

The world is transforming its energy system from one dominated by fossil fuel combustion to one with net-zero emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary anthropogenic greenhouse gas. This energy transition is critical to mitigating climate change, protecting human health, and revitalizing …[more]

The Future of Electric Power in the United States

The Future of Electric Power in the United States

Electric power is essential for the lives and livelihoods of all Americans, and the need for electricity that is safe, clean, affordable, and reliable will only grow in the decades to come. At the request of Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Academies convened a committee of …[more]

Enhancing the Resilience of the Nation's Electricity System

Enhancing the Resilience of the Nation’s Electricity System

Americans’ safety, productivity, comfort, and convenience depend on the reliable supply of electric power. The electric power system is a complex “cyber-physical” system composed of a network of millions of components spread out across the continent. These components are owned, operated, …[more]

The Power of Change: Innovation for Development and Deployment of Increasingly Clean Electric Power Technologies

The Power of Change: Innovation for Development and Deployment of Increasingly Clean Electric Power Technologies

Electricity, supplied reliably and affordably, is foundational to the U.S. economy and is utterly indispensable to modern society. However, emissions resulting from many forms of electricity generation create environmental risks that could have significant negative economic, security, and human …[more]

Lower the price of electric vehicles, saving you another $80 a month because you’ll never have to pay at the gas pump again.

Assessment of Technologies for Improving Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy—2025-2035

Assessment of Technologies for Improving Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy—2025-2035

From daily commutes to cross-country road trips, millions of light-duty vehicles are on the road every day. The transportation sector is one of the United States’ largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, and fuel is an important cost for drivers. The period from 2025-2035 could bring the …[more]

Reducing Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: Final Report

Reducing Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: Final Report

Medium- and heavy-duty trucks, motor coaches, and transit buses – collectively, “medium- and heavy-duty vehicles”, or MHDVs – are used in every sector of the economy. The fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of MHDVs have become a focus of legislative and regulatory action in the past …[more]

Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles

Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles

In the past few years, interest in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) has grown. Advances in battery and other technologies, new federal standards for carbon-dioxide emissions and fuel economy, state zero-emission-vehicle requirements, and the current administration’s goal of putting millions of …[more]

Transitions to Alternative Transportation Technologies—Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Transitions to Alternative Transportation Technologies—Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The nation has compelling reasons to reduce its consumption of oil and emissions of carbon dioxide. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) promise to contribute to both goals by allowing some miles to be driven on electricity drawn from the grid, with an internal combustion engine that kicks …[more]

Third – cut the cost of child care. Many families pay up to $14,000 a year for child care per child. 

Middle-class and working families shouldn’t have to pay more than 7% of their income for care of young children. 

My plan will cut the cost in half for most families and help parents, including millions of women, who left the workforce during the pandemic because they couldn’t afford child care, to be able to get back to work.

Vibrant and Healthy Kids: Aligning Science, Practice, and Policy to Advance Health Equity

Vibrant and Healthy Kids: Aligning Science, Practice, and Policy to Advance Health Equity

Children are the foundation of the United States, and supporting them is a key component of building a successful future. However, millions of children face health inequities that compromise their development, well-being, and long-term outcomes, despite substantial scientific evidence about how …[more]

Transforming the Financing of Early Care and Education

Transforming the Financing of Early Care and Education

High-quality early care and education for children from birth to kindergarten entry is critical to positive child development and has the potential to generate economic returns, which benefit not only children and their families but society at large. Despite the great promise of early care and …[more]

Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation

Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation

Children are already learning at birth, and they develop and learn at a rapid pace in their early years. This provides a critical foundation for lifelong progress, and the adults who provide for the care and the education of young children bear a great responsibility for their health, …[more]

My plan doesn’t stop there. It also includes home and long-term care. More affordable housing. And Pre-K for every 3- and 4-year-old. 

All of these will lower costs.

And under my plan, nobody earning less than $400,000 a year will pay an additional penny in new taxes. Nobody. 

The one thing all Americans agree on is that the tax system is not fair. We have to fix it. 

I’m not looking to punish anyone. But let’s make sure corporations and the wealthiest Americans start paying their fair share.

Just last year, 55 Fortune 500 corporations earned $40 billion in profits and paid zero dollars in federal income tax. 

That’s simply not fair. That’s why I’ve proposed a 15% minimum tax rate for corporations.

We got more than 130 countries to agree on a global minimum tax rate so companies can’t get out of paying their taxes at home by shipping jobs and factories overseas.

That’s why I’ve proposed closing loopholes so the very wealthy don’t pay a lower tax rate than a teacher or a firefighter. 

So that’s my plan. It will grow the economy and lower costs for families.

So what are we waiting for? Let’s get this done. And while you’re at it, confirm my nominees to the Federal Reserve, which plays a critical role in fighting inflation. 

My plan will not only lower costs to give families a fair shot, it will lower the deficit.

The previous Administration not only ballooned the deficit with tax cuts for the very wealthy and corporations, it undermined the watchdogs whose job was to keep pandemic relief funds from being wasted.

But in my administration, the watchdogs have been welcomed back.

We’re going after the criminals who stole billions in relief money meant for small businesses and millions of Americans. 

And tonight, I’m announcing that the Justice Department will name a chief prosecutor for pandemic fraud.

By the end of this year, the deficit will be down to less than half what it was before I took office. 

The only president ever to cut the deficit by more than one trillion dollars in a single year.

Lowering your costs also means demanding more competition.

I’m a capitalist, but capitalism without competition  isn’t capitalism.

It’s exploitation—and it drives up prices.

When corporations don’t have to compete, their profits go up, your prices go up, and small businesses and family farmers and ranchers go under.

We see it happening with ocean carriers moving goods in and out of America.

During the pandemic, these foreign-owned companies raised prices by as much as 1,000% and made record profits.

Tonight, I’m announcing a crackdown on these companies overcharging American businesses and consumers.

And as Wall Street firms take over more nursing homes, quality in those homes has gone down and costs have gone up. 

That ends on my watch.

Medicare is going to set higher standards for nursing homes and make sure your loved ones get the care they deserve and expect. We’ll also cut costs and keep the economy going strong by giving workers a fair shot, provide more training and apprenticeships, hire them based on their skills not degrees.

Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce

Building America’s Skilled Technical Workforce

Skilled technical occupations—defined as occupations that require a high level of knowledge in a technical domain but do not require a bachelor’s degree for entry—are a key component of the U.S. economy. In response to globalization and advances in science and technology, American firms …[more]

Opportunities for the Gulf Research Program: Middle-Skilled Workforce Needs: Summary of a Workshop

Opportunities for the Gulf Research Program: Middle-Skilled Workforce Needs: Summary of a Workshop

During the period 1990 to 2010, U.S. job growth occurred primarily in the high-skilled and low-skilled sectors. Yet, one-third of projected job growth for the period 2010-2020 will require middle-skilled workers — who will earn strong middle-class wages and salaries — important to both the …[more]

Let’s pass the Paycheck Fairness Act and paid leave. 

Raise the minimum wage to $15 an hour and extend the Child Tax Credit, so no one has to raise a family in poverty.

A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty

A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty

The strengths and abilities children develop from infancy through adolescence are crucial for their physical, emotional, and cognitive growth, which in turn help them to achieve success in school and to become responsible, economically self-sufficient, and healthy adults. Capable, responsible, …[more]

Let’s increase Pell Grants and increase our historic support of HBCUs, and invest in what Jill—our First Lady who teaches full-time—calls America’s best-kept secret: community colleges.

Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce

Minority Serving Institutions: America’s Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce

There are over 20 million young people of color in the United States whose representation in STEM education pathways and in the STEM workforce is still far below their numbers in the general population. Their participation could help re-establish the United States’ preeminence in STEM …[more]

Barriers and Opportunities for 2-Year and 4-Year STEM Degrees: Systemic Change to Support Students' Diverse Pathways

Barriers and Opportunities for 2-Year and 4-Year STEM Degrees: Systemic Change to Support Students’ Diverse Pathways

Nearly 40 percent of the students entering 2- and 4-year postsecondary institutions indicated their intention to major in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in 2012. But the barriers to students realizing their ambitions are reflected in the fact that about half of those …[more]

Enhancing the Community College Pathway to Engineering Careers

Enhancing the Community College Pathway to Engineering Careers

Community colleges play an important role in starting students on the road to engineering careers, but students often face obstacles in transferring to four-year educational institutions to continue their education. Enhancing the Community College Pathway to Engineering Careers, a new book …[more]

And let’s pass the PRO Act when a majority of workers want to form a union—they shouldn’t be stopped. 

When we invest in our workers, when we build the economy from the bottom up and the middle out together, we can do something we haven’t done in a long time: build a better America.

For more than two years, COVID-19 has impacted every decision in our lives and the life of the nation.

And I know you’re tired, frustrated, and exhausted.

But I also know this.

Because of the progress we’ve made, because of your resilience and the tools we have, tonight I can say  we are moving forward safely, back to more normal routines. 

We’ve reached a new moment in the fight against COVID-19, with severe cases down to a level not seen since last July. 

Just a few days ago, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—the CDC—issued new mask guidelines.

Under these new guidelines, most Americans in most of the country can now be mask free.  

And based on the projections, more of the country will reach that point across the next couple of weeks.

Thanks to the progress we have made this past year, COVID-19 need no longer control our lives. 

I know some are talking about “living with COVID-19”. Tonight – I say that we will never just accept living with COVID-19.

We will continue to combat the virus as we do other diseases. And because this is a virus that mutates and spreads, we will stay on guard.

Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19

Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the world’s preparedness for a respiratory virus event. While the world has been combating COVID-19, seasonal and pandemic influenza remain imminent global health threats. Non-vaccine public health control measures can combat emerging and ongoing influenza …[more]

Learning from Rapid Response, Innovation, and Adaptation to the COVID-19 Crisis: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Learning from Rapid Response, Innovation, and Adaptation to the COVID-19 Crisis: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

The world continues to grapple with the profound and unprecedented impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, which by January 2021 had infected more than 90 million people worldwide and taken over 1.9 million lives. The crisis quickly mobilized action by universities, industry, and federal, state, and …[more]

Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop

Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop

In November 2018, an ad hoc planning committee at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine planned two sister workshops held in Washington, DC, to examine the lessons from influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks, understand the extent to which the lessons have been …[more]

Here are four common sense steps as we move forward safely. 

First, stay protected with vaccines and treatments. We know how incredibly effective vaccines are. If you’re vaccinated and boosted you have the highest degree of protection.

We will never give up on vaccinating more Americans. Now, I know parents with kids under 5 are eager to see a vaccine authorized for their children.

The scientists are working hard to get that done and we’ll be ready with plenty of vaccines when they do.

Understanding and Communicating about COVID-19 Vaccine Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Equity

Understanding and Communicating about COVID-19 Vaccine Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Equity

Effective communication is needed to ensure shared understanding of how well COVID-19 vaccines work and whether they are being equitably distributed. Without clear, consistent, readily accessible communications, people may lose faith in the vaccines and in those providing them. State, tribal, …[more]

Framework for Equitable Allocation of COVID-19 Vaccine

Framework for Equitable Allocation of COVID-19 Vaccine

In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the societal disruption it has brought, national governments and the international community have invested billions of dollars and immense amounts of human resources to develop a safe and effective vaccine in an unprecedented …[more]

We’re also ready with anti-viral treatments. If you get COVID-19, the Pfizer pill reduces your chances of ending up in the hospital by 90%. 

We’ve ordered more of these pills than anyone in the world. And Pfizer is working overtime to get us 1 Million pills this month and more than double that next month. 

And we’re launching the “Test to Treat” initiative so people can get tested at a pharmacy, and if they’re positive, receive antiviral pills on the spot at no cost. 

If you’re immunocompromised or have some other vulnerability, we have treatments and free high-quality masks.

We’re leaving no one behind or ignoring anyone’s needs as we move forward.

And on testing, we have made hundreds of millions of tests available for you to order for free.  

Even if you already ordered free tests tonight, I am announcing that you can order more from covidtests.gov starting next week. Second – we must prepare for new variants. Over the past year, we’ve gotten much better at detecting new variants.

Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19

Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19

The global response to COVID-19 has demonstrated the importance of vigilance and preparedness for infectious diseases, particularly influenza. There is a need for more effective influenza vaccines and modern manufacturing technologies that are adaptable and scalable to meet demand during a …[more]

Genomic Epidemiology Data Infrastructure Needs for SARS-CoV-2: Modernizing Pandemic Response Strategies

Genomic Epidemiology Data Infrastructure Needs for SARS-CoV-2: Modernizing Pandemic Response Strategies

In December 2019, new cases of severe pneumonia were first detected in Wuhan, China, and the cause was determined to be a novel beta coronavirus related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus that emerged from a bat reservoir in 2002. Within six months, this new virus—SARS …[more]

If necessary, we’ll be able to deploy new vaccines within 100 days instead of many more months or years. 

And, if Congress provides the funds we need, we’ll have new stockpiles of tests, masks, and pills ready if needed.

Globally Resilient Supply Chains for Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza Vaccines

Globally Resilient Supply Chains for Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza Vaccines

Building Resilience into the Nation’s Medical Product Supply Chains

Building Resilience into the Nation’s Medical Product Supply Chains

Over the past several decades, supply chain disruptions have repeatedly plagued the U.S. health care system, costing health care systems millions of dollars per year, threatening the clinical research enterprise, and most importantly, imperiling the health and lives of patients. The Committee on …[more]

Influenza viruses, both seasonal and pandemic, have the potential to disrupt the health and well-being of populations around the world. The global response to the COVID-19 pandemic and prior public health emergencies of international concern illustrate the importance of global preparedness and …[more]

I cannot promise a new variant won’t come. But I can promise you we’ll do everything within our power to be ready if it does. 

Third – we can end the shutdown of schools and businesses. We have the tools we need.

It’s time for Americans to get back to work and fill our great downtowns again.  People working from home can feel safe to begin to return to the office.  

Short-Term Strategies for Addressing the Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Women's Workforce Participation

Short-Term Strategies for Addressing the Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Women’s Workforce Participation

The COVID-19 pandemic and the associated recession have significantly affected women’s workforce participation. These impacts have varied from job loss to additional caregiving responsibilities. Black and Hispanic women have been particularly affected, bringing into sharp relief historical …[more]

Meeting Regional STEMM Workforce Needs in the Wake of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Virtual Workshop Series

Meeting Regional STEMM Workforce Needs in the Wake of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Virtual Workshop Series

The COVID-19 pandemic is transforming the global economy and significantly shifting workforce demand, requiring quick, adaptive responses. The pandemic has revealed the vulnerabilities of many organizations and regional economies, and it has accelerated trends that could lead to significant …[more]

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The spring of 2020 marked a change in how almost everyone conducted their personal and professional lives, both within science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) and beyond. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted global scientific conferences and individual laboratories and …[more]

We’re doing that here in the federal government. The vast majority of federal workers will once again work in person.

Our schools are open. Let’s keep it that way. Our kids need to be in school.

Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities

Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented unprecedented challenges to the nation’s K-12 education system. The rush to slow the spread of the virus led to closures of schools across the country, with little time to ensure continuity of instruction or to create a framework for deciding when and how to …[more]

Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis

Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis

The COVID-19 pandemic is resulting in widespread and ongoing changes to how the K-12 education system functions, including disruptions to science teaching and learning environments. Students and teachers are all figuring out how to do schooling differently, and districts and states are working …[more]

And with 75% of adult Americans fully vaccinated and hospitalizations down by 77%, most Americans can remove their masks, return to work, stay in the classroom, and move forward safely.

We achieved this because we provided free vaccines, treatments, tests, and masks.

Of course, continuing this costs money.

I will soon send Congress a request.

The vast majority of Americans have used these tools and may want to again, so I expect Congress to pass it quickly.  

Fourth, we will continue vaccinating the world.    

We’ve sent 475 Million vaccine doses to 112 countries, more than any other nation. And we won’t stop.

Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines: The Influenza Imperative

Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines: The Influenza Imperative

The COVID-19 pandemic has laid bare the fragility of the global system of preparedness and response to pandemics and the fragmentation of our research and development ecosystem. The pandemic has provided a disruptive moment to advance new norms and frameworks for influenza. It also has …[more]

We have lost so much to COVID-19. Time with one another. And worst of all, so much loss of life.

Let’s use this moment to reset. Let’s stop looking at COVID-19 as a partisan dividing line and see it for what it is: A God-awful disease. 

COVID-19 and the Present and Future of Black Communities: The Role of Black Physicians, Engineers, and Scientists: Proceedings of a Workshop

COVID-19 and the Present and Future of Black Communities: The Role of Black Physicians, Engineers, and Scientists: Proceedings of a Workshop

While the COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating health and economic impacts in the United States, communities of color, especially Black communities, have been disproportionately affected. On June 23, 2020, the Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine of the …[more]

Let’s stop seeing each other as enemies, and start seeing each other for who we really are: Fellow Americans. 

We can’t change how divided we’ve been. But we can change how we move forward—on COVID-19 and other issues we must face together.

I recently visited the New York City Police Department days after the funerals of Officer Wilbert Mora and his partner, Officer Jason Rivera.

They were responding to a 9-1-1 call when a man shot and killed them with a stolen gun.

Officer Mora was 27 years old.

Officer Rivera was 22.

Both Dominican Americans who’d grown up on the same streets they later chose to patrol as police officers.

I spoke with their families and told them that we are forever in debt for their sacrifice, and we will carry on their mission to restore the trust and safety every community deserves.

I’ve worked on these issues a long time.

I know what works: Investing in crime prevention and community police officers who’ll walk the beat, who’ll know the neighborhood, and who can restore trust and safety.

So let’s not abandon our streets. Or choose between safety and equal justice.

Let’s come together to protect our communities, restore trust, and hold law enforcement accountable.

That’s why the Justice Department required body cameras, banned chokeholds, and restricted no-knock warrants for its officers.

That’s why the American Rescue Plan provided $350 Billion that cities, states, and counties can use to hire more police and invest in proven strategies like community violence interruption—trusted messengers breaking the cycle of violence and trauma and giving young people hope. 

The Science of Implicit Bias: Implications for Law and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

The Science of Implicit Bias: Implications for Law and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

On March 22-23, 2021, an ad hoc planning committee under the auspices of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Committee on Science, Technology, and Law hosted a virtual workshop titled The Science of Implicit Bias: Implications for Law and Policy. Implicit bias has …[more]

Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities

Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities

Proactive policing, as a strategic approach used by police agencies to prevent crime, is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States. It developed from a crisis in confidence in policing that began to emerge in the 1960s because of social unrest, rising crime rates, and growing skepticism …[more]

Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence

Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence

Because police are the most visible face of government power for most citizens, they are expected to deal effectively with crime and disorder and to be impartial. Producing justice through the fair, and restrained use of their authority. The standards by which the public judges police success have …[more]

We should all agree: The answer is not to Defund the police. The answer is to FUND the police with the resources and training they need to protect our communities.

I ask Democrats and Republicans alike: Pass my budget and keep our neighborhoods safe. 

And I will keep doing everything in my power to crack down on gun trafficking and ghost guns you can buy online and make at home—they have no serial numbers and can’t be traced.

And I ask Congress to pass proven measures to reduce gun violence. Pass universal background checks. Why should anyone on a terrorist list be able to purchase a weapon?

Ban assault weapons and high-capacity magazines.

Repeal the liability shield that makes gun manufacturers the only industry in America that can’t be sued.

These laws don’t infringe on the Second Amendment. They save lives.

The most fundamental right in America is the right to vote – and to have it counted. And it’s under assault.

In state after state, new laws have been passed, not only to suppress the vote, but to subvert entire elections.

We cannot let this happen.

Tonight. I call on the Senate to: Pass the Freedom to Vote Act. Pass the John Lewis Voting Rights Act. And while you’re at it, pass the Disclose Act so Americans can know who is funding our elections.

Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy

Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy

During the 2016 presidential election, America’s election infrastructure was targeted by actors sponsored by the Russian government. Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy examines the challenges arising out of the 2016 federal election, assesses current technology and standards for …[more]

Tonight, I’d like to honor someone who has dedicated his life to serve this country: Justice Stephen Breyer—an Army veteran, Constitutional scholar, and retiring Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Justice Breyer, thank you for your service.

One of the most serious constitutional responsibilities a President has is nominating someone to serve on the United States Supreme Court.

And I did that 4 days ago, when I nominated Circuit Court of Appeals Judge Ketanji Brown Jackson. One of our nation’s top legal minds, who will continue Justice Breyer’s legacy of excellence.

A former top litigator in private practice. A former federal public defender. And from a family of public school educators and police officers. A consensus builder. Since she’s been nominated, she’s received a broad range of support—from the Fraternal Order of Police to former judges appointed by Democrats and Republicans.

And if we are to advance liberty and justice, we need to secure the Border and fix the immigration system.

We can do both. At our border, we’ve installed new technology like cutting-edge scanners to better detect drug smuggling. 

We’ve set up joint patrols with Mexico and Guatemala to catch more human traffickers. 

We’re putting in place dedicated immigration judges so families fleeing persecution and violence can have their cases heard faster.

We’re securing commitments and supporting partners in South and Central America to host more refugees and secure their own borders.

We can do all this while keeping lit the torch of liberty that has led generations of immigrants to this land—my forefathers and so many of yours.

Provide a pathway to citizenship for Dreamers, those on temporary status, farm workers, and essential workers.

Revise our laws so businesses have the workers they need and families don’t wait decades to reunite.

It’s not only the right thing to do—it’s the economically smart thing to do.

That’s why immigration reform is supported by everyone from labor unions to religious leaders to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce.

Let’s get it done once and for all.

The Integration of Immigrants into American Society

The Integration of Immigrants into American Society

The United States prides itself on being a nation of immigrants, and the country has a long history of successfully absorbing people from across the globe. The integration of immigrants and their children contributes to our economic vitality and our vibrant and ever changing culture. We have …[more]

The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration

The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration

The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration finds that the long-term impact of immigration on the wages and employment of native-born workers overall is very small, and that any negative impacts are most likely to be found for prior immigrants or native-born high school dropouts. …[more]

Advancing liberty and justice also requires protecting the rights of women.

The constitutional right affirmed in Roe v. Wade—standing precedent for half a century—is under attack as never before.

If we want to go forward—not backward—we must protect access to health care. Preserve a woman’s right to choose. And let’s continue to advance maternal health care in America.

Advancing Maternal Health Equity and Reducing Maternal Morbidity and Mortality: Proceedings of a Workshop

Advancing Maternal Health Equity and Reducing Maternal Morbidity and Mortality: Proceedings of a Workshop

The United States faces an alarmingly high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, distinguishing it from other high-income countries that have achieved decreases in these rates in recent years. U.S. maternal morbidity and mortality rates are disproportionate across racial, ethnic, …[more]

Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice

Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice

The delivery of high quality and equitable care for both mothers and newborns is complex and requires efforts across many sectors. The United States spends more on childbirth than any other country in the world, yet outcomes are worse than other high-resource countries, and even worse for Black …[more]

Clinical Preventive Services for Women: Closing the Gaps

Clinical Preventive Services for Women: Closing the Gaps

Women suffer disproportionate rates of chronic disease and disability from some conditions, and often have high out-of-pocket health care costs. The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) provides the United States with an opportunity to reduce existing health …[more]

The Safety and Quality of Abortion Care in the United States

The Safety and Quality of Abortion Care in the United States

Abortion is a legal medical procedure that has been provided to millions of American women. Since the Institute of Medicine first reviewed the health implications of national legalized abortion in 1975, there has been a plethora of related scientific research, including well-designed randomized …[more]

And for our LGBTQ+ Americans, let’s finally get the bipartisan Equality Act to my desk. The onslaught of state laws targeting transgender Americans and their families is wrong.

Understanding the Well-Being of LGBTQI+ Populations

Understanding the Well-Being of LGBTQI+ Populations

The increase in prevalence and visibility of sexually gender diverse (SGD) populations illuminates the need for greater understanding of the ways in which current laws, systems, and programs affect their well-being. Individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, asexual, transgender, …[more]

Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop

Reducing Inequalities Between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adolescents and Cisgender, Heterosexual Adolescents: Proceedings of a Workshop

To better understand the inequalities facing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth and the promising interventions being used to address these inequalities, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Board on Children, Youth, and Families hosted a …[more]

As I said last year, especially to our younger transgender Americans, I will always have your back as your President, so you can be yourself and reach your God-given potential.

While it often appears that we never agree, that isn’t true. I signed 80 bipartisan bills into law last year. From preventing government shutdowns to protecting Asian-Americans from still-too-common hate crimes to reforming military justice.

And soon, we’ll strengthen the Violence Against Women Act that I first wrote three decades ago. It is important for us to show the nation that we can come together and do big things.

So tonight I’m offering a Unity Agenda for the Nation. Four big things we can do together. 

First, beat the opioid epidemic.

There is so much we can do. Increase funding for prevention, treatment, harm reduction, and recovery. 

Get rid of outdated rules that stop doctors from prescribing treatments. And stop the flow of illicit drugs by working with state and local law enforcement to go after traffickers.

Medications for Opioid Use Disorder Save Lives

Medications for Opioid Use Disorder Save Lives

The opioid crisis in the United States has come about because of excessive use of these drugs for both legal and illicit purposes and unprecedented levels of consequent opioid use disorder (OUD). More than 2 million people in the United States are estimated to have OUD, which is caused by …[more]

Pain Management and the Opioid Epidemic: Balancing Societal and Individual Benefits and Risks of Prescription Opioid Use

Pain Management and the Opioid Epidemic: Balancing Societal and Individual Benefits and Risks of Prescription Opioid Use

Drug overdose, driven largely by overdose related to the use of opioids, is now the leading cause of unintentional injury death in the United States. The ongoing opioid crisis lies at the intersection of two public health challenges: reducing the burden of suffering from pain and containing the …[more]

If you’re suffering from addiction, know you are not alone. I believe in recovery, and I celebrate the 23 million Americans in recovery.

Second, let’s take on mental health. Especially among our children, whose lives and education have been turned upside down. 

Back in School: Addressing the Well-Being of Students in the Wake of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Back in School: Addressing the Well-Being of Students in the Wake of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Back in School: Addressing the Well-Being of Students in the Wake of COVID-19, a virtual workshop hosted by the National Academy of Sciences’ Forum for Children’s Well-Being on May 20, 25, and 27, 2021, focused on the effects of COVID-19 on the intersection of students’ learning and mental …[more]

Addressing the Impact of COVID-19 on the Early Care and Education Sector

Addressing the Impact of COVID-19 on the Early Care and Education Sector

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated challenges in the early care and education (ECE) sector, including: preexisting structural flaws; insufficient funding mechanisms; sector fragmentation; inadequate support for the workforce; and inequalities, such as the lack of access to high-quality care …[more]

School-Based Strategies for Addressing the Mental Health and Well-Being of Youth in the Wake of COVID-19

School-Based Strategies for Addressing the Mental Health and Well-Being of Youth in the Wake of COVID-19

COVID-19, along with heightened racial trauma, has caused unprecedented disruption in the lives of youth aged 10-18, leading them to experience increases in mental health concerns. Addressing these negative impacts requires that education leaders, school districts, state and local decision …[more]

The American Rescue Plan gave schools money to hire teachers and help students make up for lost learning. 

I urge every parent to make sure your school does just that. And we can all play a part—sign up to be a tutor or a mentor.

Children were also struggling before the pandemic. Bullying, violence, trauma, and the harms of social media.

The Promise of Adolescence: Realizing Opportunity for All Youth

The Promise of Adolescence: Realizing Opportunity for All Youth

Adolescence—beginning with the onset of puberty and ending in the mid-20s—is a critical period of development during which key areas of the brain mature and develop. These changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity mark adolescence as a period of opportunity to discover new …[more]

Fostering Healthy Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Development in Children and Youth: A National Agenda

Fostering Healthy Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Development in Children and Youth: A National Agenda

Healthy mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) development is a critical foundation for a productive adulthood. Much is known about strategies to support families and communities in strengthening the MEB development of children and youth, by promoting healthy development and also by preventing …[more]

Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy, and Practice

Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy, and Practice

Bullying has long been tolerated as a rite of passage among children and adolescents. There is an implication that individuals who are bullied must have “asked for” this type of treatment, or deserved it. Sometimes, even the child who is bullied begins to internalize this idea. For many years, …[more]

As Frances Haugen, who is here with us tonight, has shown, we must hold social media platforms accountable for the national experiment they’re conducting on our children for profit.

It’s time to strengthen privacy protections, ban targeted advertising to children, demand tech companies stop collecting personal data on our children.

And let’s get all Americans the mental health services they need. More people they can turn to for help, and full parity between physical and mental health care.

Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders in the Era of COVID-19: The Impact of the Pandemic on Communities of Color: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders in the Era of COVID-19: The Impact of the Pandemic on Communities of Color: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

The Forum on Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a virtual workshop, Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders in the Era of COVID-19: With a Special Focus on the Impact of the Pandemic on Communities of Color, on …[more]

Mental Health, Substance Use, and Wellbeing in Higher Education: Supporting the Whole Student

Mental Health, Substance Use, and Wellbeing in Higher Education: Supporting the Whole Student

Student wellbeing is foundational to academic success. One recent survey of postsecondary educators found that nearly 80 percent believed emotional wellbeing is a “very” or “extremely” important factor in student success. Studies have found the dropout rates for students with a diagnosed mental …[more]

The State of Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth in the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop

The State of Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth in the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop

Over the past decade, providers, policy makers, and stakeholders across a range of disciplines have taken various approaches to addressing the rising incidence of mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) health concerns in children and adults. With the recent opioid crisis affecting young people …[more]

Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders: The Evidence for Stigma Change

Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders: The Evidence for Stigma Change

Estimates indicate that as many as 1 in 4 Americans will experience a mental health problem or will misuse alcohol or drugs in their lifetimes. These disorders are among the most highly stigmatized health conditions in the United States, and they remain barriers to full participation in society …[more]

Third, support our veterans.

Veterans are the best of us.

I’ve always believed that we have a sacred obligation to equip all those we send to war and care for them and their families when they come home.

My administration is providing assistance with job training and housing, and now helping lower-income veterans get VA care debt-free. 

Our troops in Iraq and Afghanistan faced many dangers.

One was stationed at bases and breathing in toxic smoke from “burn pits” that incinerated wastes of war—medical and hazard material, jet fuel, and more.

When they came home, many of the world’s fittest  and best trained warriors were never the same.

Headaches. Numbness. Dizziness.

A cancer that would put them in a flag-draped coffin.

I know.

One of those soldiers was my son Major Beau Biden.

We don’t know for sure if a burn pit was the cause of his brain cancer, or the diseases of so many of our troops.

But I’m committed to finding out everything we can.

Committed to military families like Danielle Robinson from Ohio.

The widow of Sergeant First Class Heath Robinson. 

He was born a soldier. Army National Guard. Combat medic in Kosovo and Iraq.

Stationed near Baghdad, just yards from burn pits the size of football fields.

Heath’s widow Danielle is here with us tonight. They loved going to Ohio State football games. He loved building Legos with their daughter.

But cancer from prolonged exposure to burn pits ravaged Heath’s lungs and body.

Danielle says Heath was a fighter to the very end.

He didn’t know how to stop fighting, and neither did she.

Through her pain she found purpose to demand we do better.

Tonight, Danielle—we are.

The VA is pioneering new ways of linking toxic exposures to diseases, already helping more veterans get benefits.

And tonight, I’m announcing we’re expanding eligibility to veterans suffering from nine respiratory cancers.

I’m also calling on Congress: pass a law to make sure veterans devastated by toxic exposures in Iraq and Afghanistan finally get the benefits and comprehensive health care they deserve.

Strengthening the Military Family Readiness System for a Changing American Society

Strengthening the Military Family Readiness System for a Changing American Society

The U.S. military has been continuously engaged in foreign conflicts for over two decades. The strains that these deployments, the associated increases in operational tempo, and the general challenges of military life affect not only service members but also the people who depend on them and who …[more]

Long-Term Health Consequences of Exposure to Burn Pits in Iraq and Afghanistan

Long-Term Health Consequences of Exposure to Burn Pits in Iraq and Afghanistan

Many veterans returning from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have health problems they believe are related to their exposure to the smoke from the burning of waste in open-air “burn pits” on military bases. Particular controversy surrounds the burn pit used to dispose of solid waste at …[more]

Assessment of the Department of Veterans Affairs Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry

Assessment of the Department of Veterans Affairs Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry

Military operations produce a great deal of trash in an environment where standard waste management practices may be subordinated to more pressing concerns. As a result, ground forces have long relied on incineration in open-air pits as a means of getting rid of refuse. Concerns over possible …[more]

Chronic Multisymptom Illness in Gulf War Veterans: Case Definitions Reexamined

Chronic Multisymptom Illness in Gulf War Veterans: Case Definitions Reexamined

More than 2 decades have passed since the 1990-1991 conflict in the Persian Gulf. During the intervening years, many Gulf War veterans have experienced various unexplained symptoms that many associate with service in the gulf region, but no specific exposure has been definitively associated with …[more]

And fourth, let’s end cancer as we know it.

This is personal to me and Jill, to Kamala, and to so many of you.

Cancer is the #2 cause of death in America – second only to heart disease.

Last month, I announced our plan to supercharge  the Cancer Moonshot that President Obama asked me to lead six years ago.

Our goal is to cut the cancer death rate by at least 50% over the next 25 years, turn more cancers from death sentences into treatable diseases. 

More support for patients and families.

Innovation in Cancer Care and Cancer Research in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Proceedings of a Workshop

Innovation in Cancer Care and Cancer Research in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Proceedings of a Workshop

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to dramatic adjustments in cancer care delivery and cancer research. To examine these changes, the National Cancer Policy Forum of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a virtual workshop, Innovation in Cancer Care and Cancer …[more]

Advancing Progress in the Development and Implementation of Effective, High-Quality Cancer Screening: Proceedings of a Workshop

Advancing Progress in the Development and Implementation of Effective, High-Quality Cancer Screening: Proceedings of a Workshop

New technologies and improved understanding of the genesis and progression of various cancers have added to the enthusiasm for potential new strategies to improve screening and early detection of cancer. Research is also under way to evaluate refinements in current screening approaches, …[more]

Ovarian Cancers: Evolving Paradigms in Research and Care

Ovarian Cancers: Evolving Paradigms in Research and Care

In an era of promising advances in cancer research, there are considerable and even alarming gaps in the fundamental knowledge and understanding of ovarian cancer. Researchers now know that ovarian cancer is not a single disease–several distinct subtypes exist with different origins, risk …[more]

Delivering High-Quality Cancer Care: Charting a New Course for a System in Crisis

Delivering High-Quality Cancer Care: Charting a New Course for a System in Crisis

In the United States, approximately 14 million people have had cancer and more than 1.6 million new cases are diagnosed each year. However, more than a decade after the Institute of Medicine (IOM) first studied the quality of cancer care, the barriers to achieving excellent care for all cancer …[more]

To get there, I call on Congress to fund ARPA-H, the Advanced Research Projects Agency for Health.

It’s based on DARPA—the Defense Department project that led to the Internet, GPS, and so much more. 

ARPA-H will have a singular purpose—to drive breakthroughs in cancer, Alzheimer’s, diabetes, and more.

A unity agenda for the nation.

We can do this.

My fellow Americans—tonight , we have gathered in a sacred space—the citadel of our democracy.

In this Capitol, generation after generation, Americans have debated great questions amid great strife, and have done great things.

We have fought for freedom, expanded liberty, defeated totalitarianism and terror.

And built the strongest, freest, and most prosperous nation the world has ever known.

Now is the hour.

Our moment of responsibility.

Our test of resolve and conscience, of history itself.

It is in this moment that our character is formed. Our purpose is found. Our future is forged.

Well I know this nation. 

We will meet the test.

To protect freedom and liberty, to expand fairness and opportunity.

We will save democracy.

As hard as these times have been, I am more optimistic about America today than I have been my whole life.

Because I see the future that is within our grasp.

Because I know there is simply nothing beyond our capacity.

We are the only nation on Earth that has always turned every crisis we have faced into an opportunity.

The only nation that can be defined by a single word: possibilities.

So on this night, in our 245th year as a nation, I have come to report on the State of the Union.

And my report is this: the State of the Union is strong—because you, the American people, are strong.

We are stronger today than we were a year ago.

And we will be stronger a year from now than we are today.

Now is our moment to meet and overcome the challenges of our time.

And we will, as one people.

One America.

The United States of America.

May God bless you all. May God protect our troops.

Supporting Science Communication – Explore New Journalism Awards and Our Communication Resources

The National Academies Eric and Wendy Schmidt Awards for Excellence in Science Communication will encourage high-quality science communication and build a diverse community of science journalists, research scientists, and institutions that will help society meet the challenges and opportunities posed by climate change, future pandemics, human genome editing, and other issues that can only be understood and navigated with the help of effective science communication.

Our commitment to supporting science communication is reflected in our reports on this subject. As always, they are free to read online or download.

Learning Through Citizen Science: Enhancing Opportunities by Design

Learning Through Citizen Science: Enhancing Opportunities by Design

In the last twenty years, citizen science has blossomed as a way to engage a broad range of individuals in doing science. Citizen science projects focus on, but are not limited to, nonscientists participating in the processes of scientific research, with the intended goal of advancing and using …[more]

Communicating Science Effectively: A Research Agenda

Communicating Science Effectively: A Research Agenda

Science and technology are embedded in virtually every aspect of modern life. As a result, people face an increasing need to integrate information from science with their personal values and other considerations as they make important life decisions about medical care, the safety of foods, what …[more]

The Science of Science Communication III: Inspiring Novel Collaborations and Building Capacity: Proceedings of a Colloquium

The Science of Science Communication III: Inspiring Novel Collaborations and Building Capacity: Proceedings of a Colloquium

Successful scientists must be effective communicators within their professions. Without those skills, they could not write papers and funding proposals, give talks and field questions, or teach classes and mentor students. However, communicating with audiences outside their profession – people …[more]

Science Literacy: Concepts, Contexts, and Consequences

Science Literacy: Concepts, Contexts, and Consequences

Science is a way of knowing about the world. At once a process, a product, and an institution, science enables people to both engage in the construction of new knowledge as well as use information to achieve desired ends. Access to science—whether using knowledge or creating it—necessitates …[more]

Communicating Chemistry: A Framework for Sharing Science: A Practical Evidence-Based Guide

Communicating Chemistry: A Framework for Sharing Science: A Practical Evidence-Based Guide

A growing body of evidence indicates that, increasingly, the public is engaging with science in a wide range of informal environments, which can be any setting outside of school such as community-based programs, festivals, libraries, or home. Yet undergraduate and graduate schools often don’t …[more]

Trust and Confidence at the Interfaces of the Life Sciences and Society: Does the Public Trust Science? A Workshop Summary

Trust and Confidence at the Interfaces of the Life Sciences and Society: Does the Public Trust Science? A Workshop Summary

Does the public trust science? Scientists? Scientific organizations? What roles do trust and the lack of trust play in public debates about how science can be used to address such societal concerns as childhood vaccination, cancer screening, and a warming planet? What could happen if social …[more]

Effective Chemistry Communication in Informal Environments

Effective Chemistry Communication in Informal Environments

Chemistry plays a critical role in daily life, impacting areas such as medicine and health, consumer products, energy production, the ecosystem, and many other areas. Communicating about chemistry in informal environments has the potential to raise public interest and understanding of chemistry …[more]

The Science of Science Communication II: Summary of a Colloquium

The Science of Science Communication II: Summary of a Colloquium

Successful scientists must be effective communicators within their professions. Without those skills, they could not write papers and funding proposals, give talks and field questions, or teach classes and mentor students. However, communicating with audiences outside their profession – people …[more]

Learning Science in Informal Environments: People, Places, and Pursuits

Learning Science in Informal Environments: People, Places, and Pursuits

Informal science is a burgeoning field that operates across a broad range of venues and envisages learning outcomes for individuals, schools, families, and society. The evidence base that describes informal science, its promise, and effects is informed by a range of disciplines and perspectives, …[more]

Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments

Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments

Practitioners in informal science settings—museums, after-school programs, science and technology centers, media enterprises, libraries, aquariums, zoos, and botanical gardens—are interested in finding out what learning looks like, how to measure it, and what they can do to ensure that …[more]

2021 in Review: Our Reports on Prevention and Response to the Impacts of COVID-19

As of December, more than 800,000 Americans have now died from the COVID-19 virus. Since the beginning of the pandemic in 2020, the U.S. has recorded nearly 50 million cases. In the past year, we have continued to produce reports that guide researchers, policy makers, public health professionals, clinicians, and others who struggle to save lives and support people dealing with the impacts of COVID-19, as well those who build on the lessons learned from this pandemic to prepare for future health crises. As always, these reports are free to read online or download.

Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19

Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the world’s preparedness for a respiratory virus event. While the world has been combating COVID-19, seasonal and pandemic influenza remain imminent global health threats. Non-vaccine public health control measures can combat emerging and ongoing influenza …[more]

Globally Resilient Supply Chains for Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza Vaccines

Globally Resilient Supply Chains for Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza Vaccines

Influenza viruses, both seasonal and pandemic, have the potential to disrupt the health and well-being of populations around the world. The global response to the COVID-19 pandemic and prior public health emergencies of international concern illustrate the importance of global preparedness and …[more]

Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19

Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19

The global response to COVID-19 has demonstrated the importance of vigilance and preparedness for infectious diseases, particularly influenza. There is a need for more effective influenza vaccines and modern manufacturing technologies that are adaptable and scalable to meet demand during a …[more]

Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines: The Influenza Imperative

Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines: The Influenza Imperative

The COVID-19 pandemic has laid bare the fragility of the global system of preparedness and response to pandemics and the fragmentation of our research and development ecosystem. The pandemic has provided a disruptive moment to advance new norms and frameworks for influenza. It also has …[more]

Short-Term Strategies for Addressing the Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Women's Workforce Participation

Short-Term Strategies for Addressing the Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Women’s Workforce Participation

The COVID-19 pandemic and the associated recession have significantly affected women’s workforce participation. These impacts have varied from job loss to additional caregiving responsibilities. Black and Hispanic women have been particularly affected, bringing into sharp relief historical …[more]

School-Based Strategies for Addressing the Mental Health and Well-Being of Youth in the Wake of COVID-19

School-Based Strategies for Addressing the Mental Health and Well-Being of Youth in the Wake of COVID-19

COVID-19, along with heightened racial trauma, has caused unprecedented disruption in the lives of youth aged 10-18, leading them to experience increases in mental health concerns. Addressing these negative impacts requires that education leaders, school districts, state and local decision …[more]

Addressing Disaster Vulnerability among Homeless Populations during COVID-19

Addressing Disaster Vulnerability among Homeless Populations during COVID-19

During the COVID-19 pandemic, disruptions to key services for populations experiencing homelessness may lead to secondary effects in the context of a disaster, including effects on health and safety, which require additional population-specific support. Reducing disaster vulnerability for people …[more]

COVID-19 and the Present and Future of Black Communities: The Role of Black Physicians, Engineers, and Scientists: Proceedings of a Workshop

COVID-19 and the Present and Future of Black Communities: The Role of Black Physicians, Engineers, and Scientists: Proceedings of a Workshop

While the COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating health and economic impacts in the United States, communities of color, especially Black communities, have been disproportionately affected. On June 23, 2020, the Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine of the …[more]

Rental Eviction and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Averting a Looming Crisis

Rental Eviction and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Averting a Looming Crisis

As the federal moratorium on rental eviction is set to expire on July 31st, 2021, actionable guidance is urgently needed on how to ensure that renters can stay in their homes and housing aid reaches the communities that need it most. This report from the National Academies of Sciences, …[more]

Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders in the Era of COVID-19: The Impact of the Pandemic on Communities of Color: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders in the Era of COVID-19: The Impact of the Pandemic on Communities of Color: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

The Forum on Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a virtual workshop, Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders in the Era of COVID-19: With a Special Focus on the Impact of the Pandemic on Communities of Color, on …[more]

Understanding and Communicating about COVID-19 Vaccine Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Equity

Understanding and Communicating about COVID-19 Vaccine Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Equity

Effective communication is needed to ensure shared understanding of how well COVID-19 vaccines work and whether they are being equitably distributed. Without clear, consistent, readily accessible communications, people may lose faith in the vaccines and in those providing them. State, tribal, …[more]

Innovations in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing on the Horizon: Technical Challenges, Regulatory Issues, and Recommendations

Innovations in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing on the Horizon: Technical Challenges, Regulatory Issues, and Recommendations

In 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) launched the Pharmaceutical Quality for the 21st Century Initiative to encourage adoption of innovative technologies that would lead to an agile, flexible pharmaceutical manufacturing sector. The goal was to encourage a transition to …[more]

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The spring of 2020 marked a change in how almost everyone conducted their personal and professional lives, both within science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) and beyond. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted global scientific conferences and individual laboratories and …[more]

COVID-19 Addendum to Critical Issues in Transportation

COVID-19 Addendum to Critical Issues in Transportation

The year 2020’s raging coronavirus pandemic and reckoning with long-standing racial injustice led to widespread disruption and suffering, social unrest, and renewed calls for an accounting of our fragmented public health system and troubled history of racial inequity.

The crises of 2020 …[more]

Meeting Regional STEMM Workforce Needs in the Wake of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Virtual Workshop Series

Meeting Regional STEMM Workforce Needs in the Wake of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Virtual Workshop Series

The COVID-19 pandemic is transforming the global economy and significantly shifting workforce demand, requiring quick, adaptive responses. The pandemic has revealed the vulnerabilities of many organizations and regional economies, and it has accelerated trends that could lead to significant …[more]

Rapid Response by Laboratory Animal Research Institutions During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Lessons Learned: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Rapid Response by Laboratory Animal Research Institutions During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Lessons Learned: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop to explore lessons learned at animal research institutions in response to SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic. Expert scientists conducting COVID-19 research, as well as institutional leadership …[more]

Learning from Rapid Response, Innovation, and Adaptation to the COVID-19 Crisis: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Learning from Rapid Response, Innovation, and Adaptation to the COVID-19 Crisis: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

The world continues to grapple with the profound and unprecedented impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, which by January 2021 had infected more than 90 million people worldwide and taken over 1.9 million lives. The crisis quickly mobilized action by universities, industry, and federal, state, and …[more]

Emergency Evacuation and Sheltering During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Emergency Evacuation and Sheltering During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Fundamental shifts in preparedness planning are needed to ensure health, safety, and smooth operations during emergencies in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. To prepare for emergency events requiring evacuation, it is necessary to revise shelter planning and mass care operations, shelter …[more]

Critical Findings on COVID-19: Select Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Critical Findings on COVID-19: Select Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

For more than 150 years, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine have issued reports detailing leading research on public health and infectious disease. In response to the global outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020, the National Academies has continued this work by issuing …[more]

2021 in Review: Our Reports on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion

The United States is home to people of all races and cultures, but some populations still suffer serious disparities. This list of 2021 titles address a variety of issues in diversity and discuss how we can build an inclusive and equitable nation. As always, all are free to read online or download.

Transforming Trajectories for Women of Color in Tech

Transforming Trajectories for Women of Color in Tech

Demand for tech professionals is expected to increase substantially over the next decade, and increasing the number of women of color in tech will be critical to building and maintaining a competitive workforce. Despite years of efforts to increase the diversity of the tech workforce, women of …[more]

Measuring the Opportunity Gap for Children from Birth to Age Eight and Understanding Barriers to Access: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Measuring the Opportunity Gap for Children from Birth to Age Eight and Understanding Barriers to Access: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief [more]

Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

A diverse workforce and inclusive workspaces are important components of future chemical and chemical engineering research. The workshop Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, held virtually on May 25-26, 2021, by the Chemical Sciences Roundtable, provided a …[more]

Advancing Maternal Health Equity and Reducing Maternal Morbidity and Mortality: Proceedings of a Workshop

Advancing Maternal Health Equity and Reducing Maternal Morbidity and Mortality: Proceedings of a Workshop

The United States faces an alarmingly high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, distinguishing it from other high-income countries that have achieved decreases in these rates in recent years. U.S. maternal morbidity and mortality rates are disproportionate across racial, ethnic, …[more]

Short-Term Strategies for Addressing the Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Women's Workforce Participation

Short-Term Strategies for Addressing the Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Women’s Workforce Participation

The COVID-19 pandemic and the associated recession have significantly affected women’s workforce participation. These impacts have varied from job loss to additional caregiving responsibilities. Black and Hispanic women have been particularly affected, bringing into sharp relief historical …[more]

Racial Equity Addendum to Critical Issues in Transportation

Racial Equity Addendum to Critical Issues in Transportation

Racism has been overt in transportation. For example, the segregation of races on intercity trains led to the infamous 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson “separate but equal” Supreme Court doctrine that stood for more than half a century. While many discriminatory policies have been reversed by the …[more]

Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry

Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry

Many transit agencies are striving to improve diversity and inclusion. They continue to initiate and sustain programs and develop more innovative strategies.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program’s TCRP Research Report 228: Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion …[more]

Harnessing the Value of Co-Creating and Stewarding Places for Health, Equity, and Well-Being: Proceedings of a Workshop

Harnessing the Value of Co-Creating and Stewarding Places for Health, Equity, and Well-Being: Proceedings of a Workshop [more]

Addressing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Anti-Racism in 21st Century STEMM Organizations: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Addressing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Anti-Racism in 21st Century STEMM Organizations: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Committee on Addressing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Anti-Racism in 21st Century STEMM Organizations convened a national summit in July 2021 that highlighted how racism operates at different levels in science, technology, …[more]

Reducing Racial Inequalities in Criminal Justice: Data, Courts, and Systems of Supervision: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Reducing Racial Inequalities in Criminal Justice: Data, Courts, and Systems of Supervision: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

The Committee on Reducing Racial Inequalities in the Criminal Justice System of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop in April 2021 as part of its exploration of ways to reduce racial inequalities in criminal justice outcomes in the United States. This …[more]

Contact Tracing and the Challenges of Health Equity in Vulnerable Latino and Native American Communities: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Contact Tracing and the Challenges of Health Equity in Vulnerable Latino and Native American Communities: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Communities of color are experiencing significantly higher rates of COVID-19 infection and significantly higher mortality rates when compared to white Americans. It is critical that contact tracing efforts are executed in ways that are appropriate to those communities experiencing a greater …[more]

Understanding and Communicating about COVID-19 Vaccine Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Equity

Understanding and Communicating about COVID-19 Vaccine Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Equity

Effective communication is needed to ensure shared understanding of how well COVID-19 vaccines work and whether they are being equitably distributed. Without clear, consistent, readily accessible communications, people may lose faith in the vaccines and in those providing them. State, tribal, …[more]

Addressing the Drivers of Criminal Justice Involvement to Advance Racial Equity: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Addressing the Drivers of Criminal Justice Involvement to Advance Racial Equity: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

The Committee on Reducing Racial Inequalities in the Criminal Justice System of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop in March 2021 as part of its exploration of ways to reduce racial inequalities in criminal justice outcomes in the United States. This …[more]

COVID-19 and the Present and Future of Black Communities: The Role of Black Physicians, Engineers, and Scientists: Proceedings of a Workshop

COVID-19 and the Present and Future of Black Communities: The Role of Black Physicians, Engineers, and Scientists: Proceedings of a Workshop

While the COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating health and economic impacts in the United States, communities of color, especially Black communities, have been disproportionately affected. On June 23, 2020, the Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine of the …[more]

Fostering Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Neuroscience Training: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Fostering Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Neuroscience Training: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Fostering a diverse neuroscience workforce, as well as an environment that is inclusive for all, is critical to the advancement of science and the future of the field. On January 25, 2021, the Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, …[more]

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The spring of 2020 marked a change in how almost everyone conducted their personal and professional lives, both within science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) and beyond. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted global scientific conferences and individual laboratories and …[more]

2021 in Review: Our Reports on Climate Change

Climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for a broad range of human and natural systems. Human activities largely determine the evolution of the Earth’s climate, which not only impact the next few decades, but the coming centuries and millennia. Our 2021 climate change reports emphasize the importance of 21st century choices regarding long-term climate stabilization through improving understanding of the causes and consequences of climate change and expanding the options available to limit the magnitude of climate change.

A Research Strategy for Ocean-based Carbon Dioxide Removal and Sequestration

A Research Strategy for Ocean-based Carbon Dioxide Removal and Sequestration

As of 2021, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have reached historically unprecedented levels, higher than at any time in the past 800,000 years. Worldwide efforts to reduce emissions by creating a more efficient, carbon-free energy system may not be enough to stabilize the climate and avoid the …[more]

Partnerships and Cross-Sector Collaboration Priorities to Support Climate Research and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Partnerships and Cross-Sector Collaboration Priorities to Support Climate Research and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

As global mean temperatures rise and extreme climate and weather events increase in frequency and intensity, the severity of the climate situation and its potential impacts on human well-being – particularly of the world’s most vulnerable populations – is strikingly evident. Research and policy …[more]

Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research

Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research

The Antarctic’s unique environment and position on the globe make it a prime location to gain insights into how Earth and the universe operate. This report assesses National Science Foundation (NSF) progress in addressing three priority research areas identified in a 2015 National Academies …[more]

Perspectives on Climate and Environmental Justice on the U.S. Gulf Coast: Proceedings of a Webinar–in Brief

Perspectives on Climate and Environmental Justice on the U.S. Gulf Coast: Proceedings of a Webinar–in Brief

Communities along the Gulf Coast routinely experience intense weather events. Acute and repetitive shocks – illustrated by the multiple Gulf regional hurricane landfalls during the 2020 hurricane season – have a disproportionate impact on communities in this region that are already burdened by …[more]

Motivating Local Climate Adaptation and Strengthening Resilience: Making Local Data Trusted, Useful, and Used

Motivating Local Climate Adaptation and Strengthening Resilience: Making Local Data Trusted, Useful, and Used

Local communities are already experiencing dire effects caused by climate change that are expected to increase in frequency, intensity, duration, and type. Public concern about climate-related challenges is increasing, available information and resources on climate risks are expanding, and …[more]

Enhancing Community Resilience through Social Capital and Connectedness: Stronger Together!

Enhancing Community Resilience through Social Capital and Connectedness: Stronger Together!

Disasters caused by natural hazards and other large-scale emergencies are devastating communities in the United States. These events harm individuals, families, communities, and the entire country, including its economy and the federal budget. This report identifies applied research topics, …[more]

Global Change Research Needs and Opportunities for 2022-2031

Global Change Research Needs and Opportunities for 2022-2031

The US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is a collection of 13 Federal entities charged by law to assist the United States and the world to understand, assess, predict, and respond to human-induced and natural processes of global change. Global Change Research Needs and Opportunities …[more]

The Future of Electric Power in the United States

The Future of Electric Power in the United States

Electric power is essential for the lives and livelihoods of all Americans, and the need for electricity that is safe, clean, affordable, and reliable will only grow in the decades to come. At the request of Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Academies convened a committee of …[more]

Accelerating Decarbonization of the U.S. Energy System

Accelerating Decarbonization of the U.S. Energy System

The world is transforming its energy system from one dominated by fossil fuel combustion to one with net-zero emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary anthropogenic greenhouse gas. This energy transition is critical to mitigating climate change, protecting human health, and revitalizing …[more]

Supporting our Kids: Resources to Foster Resilience from the Impacts of COVID-19

It would be an understatement to say that the COVID-19 pandemic has been tough on kids. COVID-19 has caused unprecedented disruption in the lives of children and youth as a result of public health safety measures, including school closures; social isolation; financial hardship; food insecurity; disrupted sleep; and gaps in health care access. The uncertainties of the pandemic continue to cause stressors for children and families, especially as we prepare for a new school year.

Our resources provide guidance to foster healthy mental, emotional, and behavioral development among children and youth as they deal with the impacts of the past year and confront current challenges. These titles explore opportunities for promoting health and well-being; identify strategies for addressing mental health challenges and promoting well-being among youth; and provide guidance for leaders working with young people. All are free to read online or download.


Promoting the Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Promoting the Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families: Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief

Promoting the Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families in the Post-Pandemic Economic Recovery Efforts, a workshop jointly hosted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Forum for Children’s Well-Being and the Brandeis University Institute for Child, Youth, …[more]

School-Based Strategies for Addressing the Mental Health and Well-Being of Youth in the Wake of COVID-19

School-Based Strategies for Addressing the Mental Health and Well-Being of Youth in the Wake of COVID-19

COVID-19, along with heightened racial trauma, has caused unprecedented disruption in the lives of youth aged 10-18, leading them to experience increases in mental health concerns. Addressing these negative impacts requires that education leaders, school districts, state and local decision …[more]

Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders in the Era of COVID-19: The Impact of the Pandemic on Communities of Color: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders in the Era of COVID-19: The Impact of the Pandemic on Communities of Color: Proceedings of a Workshop—in Brief

The Forum on Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a virtual workshop, Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders in the Era of COVID-19: With a Special Focus on the Impact of the Pandemic on Communities of Color, on …[more]

Vibrant and Healthy Kids: Aligning Science, Practice, and Policy to Advance Health Equity

Vibrant and Healthy Kids: Aligning Science, Practice, and Policy to Advance Health Equity

Children are the foundation of the United States, and supporting them is a key component of building a successful future. However, millions of children face health inequities that compromise their development, well-being, and long-term outcomes, despite substantial scientific evidence about how …[more]

The Promise of Adolescence: Realizing Opportunity for All Youth

The Promise of Adolescence: Realizing Opportunity for All Youth

Adolescence—beginning with the onset of puberty and ending in the mid-20s—is a critical period of development during which key areas of the brain mature and develop. These changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity mark adolescence as a period of opportunity to discover new …[more]

Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth

Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth

For children and youth, summertime presents a unique break from the traditional structure, resources, and support systems that exist during the school year. For some students, this time involves opportunities to engage in fun and enriching activities and programs, while others face additional …[more]

Fostering Healthy Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Development in Children and Youth: A National Agenda

Fostering Healthy Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Development in Children and Youth: A National Agenda

Healthy mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) development is a critical foundation for a productive adulthood. Much is known about strategies to support families and communities in strengthening the MEB development of children and youth, by promoting healthy development and also by preventing …[more]

Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities

Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented unprecedented challenges to the nation’s K-12 education system. The rush to slow the spread of the virus led to closures of schools across the country, with little time to ensure continuity of instruction or to create a framework for deciding when and how to …[more]

The State of Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth in the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop

The State of Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth in the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop

Over the past decade, providers, policy makers, and stakeholders across a range of disciplines have taken various approaches to addressing the rising incidence of mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) health concerns in children and adults. With the recent opioid crisis affecting young people …[more]

Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Considerations for Children and Families: Workshop Summary

Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Considerations for Children and Families: Workshop Summary

Preparedness, Response and Recovery Considerations for Children and Families is the summary of a workshop convened in June, 2013 by the Institute of Medicine Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events to discuss disaster preparedness, response, and resilience …[more]

Increasing Resilience to Prevent and Respond to Cyberattacks

A strong defense against ransomware and other forms of cyberattack is critical for the efficient operation and delivery our nation’s computer, infrastructure, and communications services and networks. Our reports explain the importance of increasing the usability of security technologies, recommend strategies for future research aimed at countering cyberattacks, and consider how information technology systems can be used to maximize protection against attacks and respond to threats. All are free to read or download.

Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop

Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop

Electric power is a critical infrastructure that is vital to the U.S. economy and national security. Today, the nation’s electric power infrastructure is threatened by malicious attacks, accidents, and failures, as well as disruptive natural events. As the electric grid evolves and becomes …[more]

Update of Security 101: A Physical Security and Cybersecurity Primer for Transportation Agencies

Update of Security 101: A Physical Security and Cybersecurity Primer for Transportation Agencies

Since 2009, when NCHRP’s last Security 101 report was released, there have been significant advances in transportation security approaches, including new strategies, programs, and ways of doing business that have increased the security of …[more]

Developing a Physical and Cyber Security Primer for Transportation Agencies

Developing a Physical and Cyber Security Primer for Transportation Agencies

Small events pose threats of great consequences since the impact of any incident is magnified when a transportation network is operating at or past its capacity—as is the case in portions of many states as travel demand on their transportation networks grows.

The TRB National …[more]

Foundational Cybersecurity Research: Improving Science, Engineering, and Institutions

Foundational Cybersecurity Research: Improving Science, Engineering, and Institutions

Attaining meaningful cybersecurity presents a broad societal challenge. Its complexity and the range of systems and sectors in which it is needed mean that successful approaches are necessarily multifaceted. Moreover, cybersecurity is a dynamic process involving human attackers who continue to …[more]

A 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education

A 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are “engineered systems that are built from, and depend upon, the seamless integration of computational algorithms and physical components.” CPS can be small and closed, such as an artificial pancreas, or very large, complex, and interconnected, such as a regional …[more]

Protection of Transportation Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks: A Primer

Protection of Transportation Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks: A Primer

TRB’s Protection of Transportation Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks: A Primer provides transportation organizations with reference materials concerning cybersecurity concepts, guidelines, definitions, and standards. The primer is a joint product of two TRB Cooperative Research Programs, and is …[more]

Protection of Transportation Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks: A Primer

Protection of Transportation Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks: A Primer

TRB’s Protection of Transportation Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks: A Primer provides transportation organizations with reference materials concerning cybersecurity concepts, guidelines, definitions, and standards. The primer is a joint product of two TRB Cooperative Research Programs, and is …[more]

Cybersecurity Dilemmas: Technology, Policy, and Incentives: Summary of Discussions at the 2014 Raymond and Beverly Sackler U.S.-U.K. Scientific Forum

Cybersecurity Dilemmas: Technology, Policy, and Incentives: Summary of Discussions at the 2014 Raymond and Beverly Sackler U.S.-U.K. Scientific Forum

Individuals, businesses, governments, and society at large have tied their future to information technologies, and activities carried out in cyberspace have become integral to daily life. Yet these activities – many of them drivers of economic development – are under constant attack from …[more]

At the Nexus of Cybersecurity and Public Policy: Some Basic Concepts and Issues

At the Nexus of Cybersecurity and Public Policy: Some Basic Concepts and Issues

We depend on information and information technology (IT) to make many of our day-to-day tasks easier and more convenient. Computers play key roles in transportation, health care, banking, and energy. Businesses use IT for payroll and accounting, inventory and sales, and research and development. …[more]

Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities

Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities

The United States is increasingly dependent on information and information technology for both civilian and military purposes, as are many other nations. Although there is a substantial literature on the potential impact of a cyberattack on the societal infrastructure of the United States, …[more]

Promoting the Health and Well-Being of Children

From their infancy to their adolescence, children continuously develop capacities that are crucial for their physical and emotional well-being and their cognitive abilities, which in turn help to promote their success in school, their responsible behavior as adults, their eventual economic self-sufficiency, and lifelong health. Our titles explore opportunities and challenges to support the healthy growth and development of all children.

A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty

A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty

The strengths and abilities children develop from infancy through adolescence are crucial for their physical, emotional, and cognitive growth, which in turn help them to achieve success in school and to become responsible, economically …[more]

Vibrant and Healthy Kids: Aligning Science, Practice, and Policy to Advance Health Equity

Vibrant and Healthy Kids: Aligning Science, Practice, and Policy to Advance Health Equity

Children are the foundation of the United States, and supporting them is a key component of building a successful future. However, millions of children face health inequities that compromise their development, well-being, and long-term outcomes, …[more]

Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth

Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth

For children and youth, summertime presents a unique break from the traditional structure, resources, and support systems that exist during the school year. For some students, this time involves opportunities to engage in fun and enriching …[more]

Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice

Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice

The delivery of high quality and equitable care for both mothers and newborns is complex and requires efforts across many sectors. The United States spends more on childbirth than any other country in the world, yet outcomes are worse than other …[more]

Feeding Infants and Children from Birth to 24 Months: Summarizing Existing Guidance

Feeding Infants and Children from Birth to 24 Months: Summarizing Existing Guidance

Recommendations for feeding infants and young children have changed substantially over time owing to scientific advances, cultural influences, societal trends, and other factors. At the same time, stronger approaches to reviewing and synthesizing …[more]

Fostering Healthy Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Development in Children and Youth: A National Agenda

Fostering Healthy Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Development in Children and Youth: A National Agenda

Healthy mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) development is a critical foundation for a productive adulthood. Much is known about strategies to support families and communities in strengthening the MEB development of children and youth, by …[more]

English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives

English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives

The imperative that all students, including English learners (ELs), achieve high academic standards and have opportunities to participate in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning has become even more urgent and complex …[more]

Transforming the Financing of Early Care and Education

Transforming the Financing of Early Care and Education

High-quality early care and education for children from birth to kindergarten entry is critical to positive child development and has the potential to generate economic returns, which benefit not only children and their families but society at …[more]

Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy, and Practice

Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy, and Practice

Bullying has long been tolerated as a rite of passage among children and adolescents. There is an implication that individuals who are bullied must have “asked for” this type of treatment, or deserved it. Sometimes, even the child who is bullied …[more]

Advancing the Power of Economic Evidence to Inform Investments in Children, Youth, and Families

Advancing the Power of Economic Evidence to Inform Investments in Children, Youth, and Families

In recent years, the U.S. federal government has invested approximately $463 billion annually in interventions that affect the overall health and well-being of children and youth, while state and local budgets have devoted almost double that …[more]

Reaching and Investing in Children at the Margins: Summary of a Joint Workshop by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Open Society Foundations; and the International Step by Step Association (ISSA)

Reaching and Investing in Children at the Margins: Summary of a Joint Workshop by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Open Society Foundations; and the International Step by Step Association (ISSA)

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals for 2015-2030 strive for a world that is “just, equitable, and inclusive,” in which everyone receives care, education, and opportunities to thrive. Yet many children are living on the margins of …[more]

Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8

Parenting Matters: Supporting Parents of Children Ages 0-8

Decades of research have demonstrated that the parent-child dyad and the environment of the family—which includes all primary caregivers—are at the foundation of children’s well- being and healthy development. From birth, children are …[more]

Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation

Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation

Children are already learning at birth, and they develop and learn at a rapid pace in their early years. This provides a critical foundation for lifelong progress, and the adults who provide for the care and the education of young children bear a …[more]

The Cost of Inaction for Young Children Globally: Workshop Summary

The Cost of Inaction for Young Children Globally: Workshop Summary

The Cost of Inaction for Young Children Globally is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally in April 2014 to focus on investments in young children and the cost of …[more]

Building the Resilience of the Electric Grid

The electric power transmission and distribution system (the grid) is an extraordinarily complex network of wires, transformers, and associated equipment and control software designed to transmit electricity from where it is generated, usually in centralized power plants, to commercial, residential, and industrial users. During natural and man-made disasters, destruction of the grid cascades well beyond whether the lights turn on, impacting among other basic services such as the fueling infrastructure, the economic system, and emergency services. Our reports discuss vulnerabilities of the grid, ways in which communities respond to widespread outages and how to minimize these impacts, and how resilience can be encouraged and built into the grid in the future. All are free to read online or download.

The Future of Electric Power in the United States

The Future of Electric Power in the United States

Electric power is essential for the lives and livelihoods of all Americans, and the need for electricity that is safe, clean, affordable, and reliable will only grow in the decades to come. At the request of Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Academies convened a committee of experts to undertake a comprehensive evaluation of …[more]

Bringing Fusion to the U.S. Grid

Bringing Fusion to the U.S. Grid

Fusion energy offers the prospect of addressing the nation’s energy needs and contributing to the transition to a low-carbon emission electrical generation infrastructure. Technology and research results from U.S. investments in the major fusion burning plasma experiment known as ITER, coupled with a strong foundation of research funded by the …[more]

Models to Inform Planning for the Future of Electric Power in the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop

Models to Inform Planning for the Future of Electric Power in the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop

Providing a reliable and resilient supply of electric power to communities across the United States has always posed a complex challenge. Utilities must support daily operations to serve a diverse array of customers across a heterogeneous landscape while simultaneously investing in infrastructure to meet future needs, all while juggling an …[more]

Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop

Communications, Cyber Resilience, and the Future of the U.S. Electric Power System: Proceedings of a Workshop

Electric power is a critical infrastructure that is vital to the U.S. economy and national security. Today, the nation’s electric power infrastructure is threatened by malicious attacks, accidents, and failures, as well as disruptive natural events. As the electric grid evolves and becomes increasingly interdependent with other critical …[more]

Enhancing Urban Sustainability with Data, Modeling, and Simulation: Proceedings of a Workshop

Enhancing Urban Sustainability with Data, Modeling, and Simulation: Proceedings of a Workshop

On January 30-31, 2019 the Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics, in collaboration with the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems and the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, convened a workshop in Washington, D.C. to explore the frontiers of mathematics and data science needs for sustainable urban communities. The workshop …[more]

Analytic Research Foundations for the Next-Generation Electric Grid

Analytic Research Foundations for the Next-Generation Electric Grid

Electricity is the lifeblood of modern society, and for the vast majority of people that electricity is obtained from large, interconnected power grids. However, the grid that was developed in the 20th century, and the incremental improvements made since then, including its underlying analytic foundations, is no longer adequate to completely …[more]

Mathematical Sciences Research Challenges for the Next-Generation Electric Grid: Summary of a Workshop

Mathematical Sciences Research Challenges for the Next-Generation Electric Grid: Summary of a Workshop

If the United States is to sustain its economic prosperity, quality of life, and global competitiveness, it must continue to have an abundance of secure, reliable, and affordable energy resources. There have been many improvements in the technology and capability of the electric grid over the past several decades. Many of these advances to the …[more]

The Resilience of the Electric Power Delivery System in Response to Terrorism and Natural Disasters: Summary of a Workshop

The Resilience of the Electric Power Delivery System in Response to Terrorism and Natural Disasters: Summary of a Workshop

The Resilience of the Electric Power Delivery System in Response to Terrorism and Natural Disasters is the summary of a workshop convened in February 2013 as a follow-up to the release of the National Research Council report Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System. That report had been written in 2007 for the Department …[more]

Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System

Terrorism and the Electric Power Delivery System

The electric power delivery system that carries electricity from large central generators to customers could be severely damaged by a small number of well-informed attackers. The system is inherently vulnerable because transmission lines may span hundreds of miles, and many key facilities are unguarded. This vulnerability is exacerbated by the …[more]