Tag Archives: biometric recognition

Take 5: Top Books for Computer Scientists

Got scientists and engineers on your holiday shopping list? Take five and check out our top gift ideas. NAP books and merchandise make thoughtful gifts for thinking people.

The Future of Computing Performance

The Future of Computing Performance: Game Over or Next Level?

The end of dramatic exponential growth in single-processor performance marks the end of the dominance of the single microprocessor in computing. The era of sequential computing must give way to a new era in which parallelism is at the forefront. Although…
Details

Biometric Recognition

Biometric Recognition: Challenges and Opportunities

Biometric recognition–the automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioral and biological characteristic–is promoted as a way to help identify terrorists, provide better control of access to physical facilities and financial accounts, and…
Details

Toward a Safer and More Secure Cyberspace

Toward a Safer and More Secure Cyberspace

Given the growing importance of cyberspace to nearly all aspects of national life, a secure cyberspace is vitally important to the nation, but cyberspace is far from secure today. The United States faces the real risk that adversaries will exploit…
Details

Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities

Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities

The United States is increasingly dependent on information and information technology for both civilian and military purposes, as are many other nations.  Although there is a substantial literature on the potential impact of a cyberattack on the societal…
Details

Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks

Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy

In a world of increasing dependence on information technology, the prevention of cyberattacks on a nation’s important computer and communications systems and networks is a problem that looms large. Given the demonstrated limitations of passive cybersecurity…
Details

Biometric Recognition: Status and Prospects for Security Technology

Recently biometrics has been in the news as a key to identifying the body of Osama bin Laden after the raid in Pakistan. Heightening security concerns around the world are leading to an expanded use of automated recognition technologies for individuals based on their behavioral and biological characteristics. Biometric systems are used increasingly to recognize individuals and regulate access to physical spaces, information, services, and other rights or benefits.

Because biometric systems use sensed traits to recognize individuals, privacy, legal, and sociological factors are involved in all applications. Biometrics in this sense sits at the intersection of biological, behavioral, social, legal, statistical, mathematical, and computer sciences as well as sensor physics and philosophy. It is no wonder that this complex set of technologies called biometrics has fascinated the government and the public for decades.

Biometric Recognition: Challenges and Opportunities provides a comprehensive assessment of biometric recognition that examines current capabilities, future possibilities, and the role of government in technology and system development This book addresses issues of effectiveness, design, and uncertainty surrounding broader implementation of this technology.

Who Goes There? Authentication Through the Lens of Privacy explores authentication technologies (passwords, PKI, biometrics, etc.) and their implications for the privacy of the individuals being authenticated. This book offers a comprehensive set of guidelines to ensure that an individual’s privacy is not unnecessarily compromised, whether by commercial or government organizations.

These books and others from the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board can add perspective and contribute to discussion.

Biometric Recognition
Biometric Recognition: Challenges and Opportunities 

Biometric recognition–the automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioral and biological characteristic–is promoted as a way to help identify terrorists, provide better control of access to physical facilities and financial accounts, and…
Details

Who Goes There?
Who Goes There?: Authentication Through the Lens of Privacy 

Who Goes There?: Authentication Through the Lens of Privacy explores authentication technologies (passwords, PKI, biometrics, etc.) and their implications for the privacy of the individuals being authenticated. As authentication becomes ever more…
Details

Summary of a Workshop on the Technology, Policy, and Cultural Dimensions of Biometric Systems
Summary of a Workshop on the Technology, Policy, and Cultural Dimensions of Biometric Systems 

Biometricsthe use of physiological and behavioral characteristics for identification purposeshas been promoted as a way to enhance security and identification efficiency. There are questions, however, about, among other issues, the effectiveness of biometric…
Details

Engaging Privacy and Information Technology in a Digital Age
Engaging Privacy and Information Technology in a Digital Age 

Privacy is a growing concern in the United States and around the world. The spread of the Internet and the seemingly boundaryless options for collecting, saving, sharing, and comparing information trigger consumer worries. Online practices of business and…
Details

Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists
Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A Framework for Program Assessment 

All U.S. agencies with counterterrorism programs that collect or “mine” personal data — such as phone records or Web sites visited — should be required to evaluate the programs’ effectiveness, lawfulness, and impacts on privacy. A framework is…
Details

Science and the Future of Computing: Parallel Processing to Meet Tomorrow’s Challenges

Fast, inexpensive computers are now essential for nearly all human endeavors and have been a critical factor in increasing economic productivity, enabling new defense systems, and advancing the frontiers of science. For the last half-century, computers have been doubling in performance and capacity every couple of years. For example, the raw performance of a 1970s supercomputer is now available in a typical modern cell phone. The remarkable growth in computing throughout the lifetimes of most people has resulted in the expectation that such phenomenal progress will continue well into the future. As our demand for increased technology performance shows no signs of slowing, it becomes apparent that we need to find ways to sustain increasing performance.

In their efforts to make faster computers, scientists have concentrated on reductions in transistor size, enabling more transistors to be packed onto computer chips. Current chips range from several complex processors to hundreds of simpler processors. To use chip multiprocessors, applications must use a parallel programming model, which divides a program into parts that are then executed in parallel on distinct processors. However, much software today is written according to a sequential programming model, and applications written this way cannot easily be sped up by using parallel processors. The Future of Computing Performance: Game Over or Next Level? recommends that our nation place a much greater emphasis on IT and computer-science research and development focused on improvements and innovations in parallel processing, and on making the transition to computing centered on parallelism.

This book also discusses the need for research and development on much more power-efficient computing systems at all levels of technology, including devices, hardware architecture, and software. The Future of Computing Performance makes recommendations aimed at supporting and focusing research, development, and education in parallel computing. It sets a path forward to sustain growth in computer performance so that we can enjoy the next level of benefits to society.

This book and others from the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board can inform discussion and guide decision-making.

The Future of Computing Performance The Future of Computing Performance: Game Over or Next Level?

The end of dramatic exponential growth in single-processor performance marks the end of the dominance of the single microprocessor in computing. The era of sequential computing must give way to a new era in which parallelism is at the forefront. Although…
Details

 

Wireless Technology Prospects and Policy Options Wireless Technology Prospects and Policy Options

The use of radio-frequency communication–commonly referred to as wireless communication–is becoming more pervasive as well as more economically and socially important. Technological progress over many decades has enabled the deployment of several successive…
Details

 

Transforming Combustion Research through Cyberinfrastructure Transforming Combustion Research through Cyberinfrastructure

Combustion has provided society with most of its energy needs for millennia, from igniting the fires of cave dwellers to propelling the rockets that traveled to the Moon. Even in the face of climate change and the increasing availability of alternative energy…
Details

 

Biometric Recognition Biometric Recognition: Challenges and Opportunities

Biometric recognition–the automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioral and biological characteristic–is promoted as a way to help identify terrorists, provide better control of access to physical facilities and financial accounts, and…
Details

 

Critical Code Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense

Critical Code contemplates Department of Defense (DoD) needs and priorities for software research and suggests a research agenda and related actions. Building on two prior books–Summary of a Workshop on Software Intensive Systems and…
Details

 

Toward Better Usability, Security, and Privacy of Information Technology Toward Better Usability, Security, and Privacy of Information Technology: Report of a Workshop

Despite many advances, security and privacy often remain too complex for individuals or enterprises to manage effectively or to use conveniently. Security is hard for users, administrators, and developers to understand, making it all too easy to use,…
Details

 

Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring CyberAttacks Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring CyberAttacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy

In a world of increasing dependence on information technology, the prevention of cyberattacks on a nation’s important computer and communications systems and networks is a problem that looms large. Given the demonstrated limitations of passive cybersecurity…
Details

 

Report of a Workshop on The Scope and Nature of Computational Thinking Report of a Workshop on The Scope and Nature of Computational Thinking

Report of a Workshop on the Scope and Nature of Computational Thinking presents a number of perspectives on the definition and applicability of computational thinking. For example, one idea expressed during the workshop is that computational thinking is a…
Details

 

Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities

The United States is increasingly dependent on information and information technology for both civilian and military purposes, as are many other nations.  Although there is a substantial literature on the potential impact of a cyberattack on the societal…
Details

 

Getting Personal: Balancing Privacy and Security in the Fight Against Terrorism

Recent debate over full-body scanners at airport security checkpoints once again highlights the issues we face in balancing security with privacy. We are observed at work, in stores, and on the street by security systems. By our own choice, we use online resources to bank, shop, contact friends and family, and apply for loans. In countless other ways we may unknowingly reveal personal information. Technological advances in biometric recognition, data mining, e-commerce and behavioral surveillance all raise questions about exactly how personal our personal information is.

Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists examines existing privacy laws to assess how privacy can be protected in current and future programs. Law-abiding citizens leave extensive digital tracks, and so do criminals and terrorists. Gathering and analyzing electronic, behavioral, biological, and other information can play major roles in the prevention, detection, and mitigation of terrorist attacks, just as they do against other criminal threats. This book provides a framework for making decisions about deploying and evaluating information-based programs on the basis of their effectiveness and associated risks to personal privacy.

Released this year, Biometric Recognition: Challenges and Opportunities deals with unresolved questions about the effectiveness and management of systems for biometric recognition, as well as the appropriateness and societal impact of their use. These books and other titles from the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board can inform and guide discussion of this important issue.

Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A Framework for Program Assessment

All U.S. agencies with counterterrorism programs that collect or “mine” personal data – such as phone records or Web sites visited – should be required to evaluate the programs’ effectiveness, lawfulness, and impacts on privacy. A framework is…
Details

Biometric Recognition Biometric Recognition: Challenges and Opportunities

Biometric recognition–the automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioral and biological characteristic–is promoted as a way to help identify terrorists, provide better control of access to physical facilities and financial accounts, and…
Details

Toward a Safer and More Secure Cyberspace Toward a Safer and More Secure Cyberspace

Given the growing importance of cyberspace to nearly all aspects of national life, a secure cyberspace is vitally important to the nation, but cyberspace is far from secure today. The United States faces the real risk that adversaries will exploit…
Details

Engaging Privacy and Information Technology in a Digital Age Engaging Privacy and Information Technology in a Digital Age

Privacy is a growing concern in the United States and around the world. The spread of the Internet and the seemingly boundaryless options for collecting, saving, sharing, and comparing information trigger consumer worries. Online practices of business and…
Details

Free from NAP: Rising Above the Gathering Storm, Revisited; The Future of Nursing; and more

The National Academy of Sciences is committed to making its headquarters, built on the National Mall in 1924, more energy efficient and environmentally advanced. Learn more about this major restoration project.

Rising Above the Gathering Storm, Revisited Rising Above the Gathering Storm, Revisited: Rapidly Approaching Category 5
In the face of so many daunting near-term challenges, U.S. government and industry are letting the crucial strategic issues of U.S. competitiveness slip below the surface. Five years ago, the National Academies prepared Rising Above the Gathering…
Details
The Future of Nursing The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health
Prepublication Available
The Future of Nursing
explores how nurses’ roles, responsibilities, and education should change significantly to meet the increased demand for care that will be created by health care reform and to advance improvements in America’s increasingly…
Details
Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation: America’s Science and Technology Talent at the Crossroads
Prepublication Available
In order for the United States to maintain the global leadership and competitiveness in science and technology that are critical to achieving national goals, we must invest in research, encourage innovation, and grow a strong and talented science and…
Details
Pathways to Urban Sustainability Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Research and Development on Urban Systems
More than half of the world’s people now live in cities. In the U.S., the figure is 80 percent. It is worthwhile to consider how this trend of increased urbanization, if inevitable, could be made more sustainable. One fundamental shortcoming of urban research…
Details
New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics
Driven by discoveries, and enabled by leaps in technology and imagination, our understanding of the universe has changed dramatically over the course of the last few decades.  The fields of astronomy and astrophysics are making new connections to physics…
Details
Assessing the Effects of the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill on Human Health Assessing the Effects of the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill on Human Health: A Summary of the June 2010 Workshop
From the origin of the leak, to the amount of oil released into the environment, to the spill’s duration, the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill poses unique challenges to human health. The risks associated with extensive, prolonged use of dispersants, with oil…
Details
Biometric Recognition Biometric Recognition: Challenges and Opportunities
Forthcoming
Biometric recognition–the automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioral and biological characteristic–is promoted as a way to help identify terrorists, provide better control of access to physical facilities and financial accounts…
Details
Implementing the New Biology Implementing the New Biology: Decadal Challenges Linking Food, Energy, and the Environment: Summary of a Workshop, June 3-4, 2010
Prepublication Available
As the second decade of the 21st century begins, the challenge of how to feed a growing world population and provide sustainable, affordable energy to fulfill daily needs, while also improving human health and protecting the environment, is clear and urgent…
Details
Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies: Workshop Summary
Prepublication Available
Years of using, misusing, and overusing antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs has led to the emergence of multidrug-resistant ‘superbugs.’ The IOM’s Forum on Microbial Threats held a public workshop April 6-7 to discuss the nature and sources of…
Details
Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The Third Biennial Review–2010
Prepublication Available
Although the progress of environmental restoration projects in the Florida Everglades remains slow overall, there have been improvements in the pace of restoration and in the relationship between the federal and state partners over the last two years….
Details
Assessment of Sea-Turtle Status and Trends Assessment of Sea-Turtle Status and Trends: Integrating Demography and Abundance
All six species of sea turtles found in U.S. waters are listed as endangered or threatened, but the exact population sizes of these species are unknown due to a lack of key information regarding birth and survival rates. The U.S. Endangered Species Act…
Details
Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles
Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles
evaluates various technologies and methods that could improve the fuel economy of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, transit…
Details
Modeling the Economics of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Modeling the Economics of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation: Summary of a Workshop
Prepublication Available
Models are fundamental for estimating the possible costs and effectiveness of different policies for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. There is a wide array of models to perform such analysis, differing in the level of technological detail, treatment…
Details
S&T Strategies of Six Countries S&T Strategies of Six Countries: Implications for the United States
An increase in global access to goods and knowledge is transforming world-class science and technology (S&T) by bringing it within the capability of an unprecedented number of global parties who must compete for resources, markets, and talent. In…
Details

Watch compelling videos from the National Academies on YouTube

A New Biology for the 21st Century A New Biology for the 21st Century
Sustaning Global Surveillance and Response to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response
to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases
acc vid America’s Climate Choices:
Advancing the Science of Climate Change

innovations Engineering Innovation Podcast and Radio Series

The National Academy of Engineering works with the Washington, DC region’s only all-news radio station, WTOP Radio, and the nation’s only all-news radio station for federal employees, WFED 1500 AM, to provide weekly features highlighting engineering innovations and stories that add technical context to issues in the news.

InterViews from NAS Interviews from NAS

InterViews provides first-person accounts of the lives and work of National Academy of Sciences members. In this series of one-on-one conversations, scientists talk about what inspired them to pursue the careers they chose and describe some of the most fascinating aspects of their research.

PNAS Science Sessions Science Sessions from PNAS

Listen to 5-minute, nontechnical conversations with cutting-edge researchers, Academy members, and policy makers as they discuss topics relevant to today’s scientific community. Learn the behind-the-scenes story of work published in PNAS, plus a broad range of scientific news about discoveries that affect the world around us.


Breast Cancer Awareness Month Featured Podcast

Meeting the Psychosocial Needs of Women with Breast Cancer Meeting the Psychosocial Needs of Women with Breast Cancer

In this podcast the National Cancer Policy Board of the Institute of Medicine examines the psychosocial consequences of the cancer experience, specifically on breast cancer in women because this group has the largest survivor population (over 2 million) and this disease is the most extensively studied cancer from the standpoint of psychosocial effects.

Read this report online for free
Visit the IOM report page

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of SciencesThe National Academy of Sciences’ neoclassical building is a symbol of the important role of science in our nation’s history. The restoration project includes sustainable designs and green technologies, including the use of some solar power and green construction materials. These efforts will reduce the building’s energy use by an estimated 40 percent. Workers will also recycle materials removed from the building during construction.


Restoration of the Historic National Academy of Sciences Building
Scaffolding on Constitution Ave. side of NAS Building Constitution Ave. side of the NAS building covered in scaffolding
Lecture Room under construction The Lecture Room under construction
Deinstalling Prometheus Bound Deinstalling Albert Herter’s mural, Prometheus Bound, from the north wall of the Great Hall
Deinstallation of Prometheus Bound Deinstallition of Albert Herter’s mural, Prometheus Bound, continues
Deinstallation of Founders of the Academy Deinstalling Albert Herter’s mural, Founders of the Academy, from the Lincoln Board Room

Learn more about the restoration project.