Author Archives: Reid Dossinger

About Reid Dossinger

NAP

Six New Books: Health Care, Science Careers, and more…

There are six new books to the NAP website, all of which are final versions. Frequent readers of Notes From NAP may notice that the titles usually have “(final)” or “(prepublication)” after the title. We often release “prepublication” versions, which are uncorrected proofs of the books in order to get the research to the public more quickly, and then release the final versions. Because many people wait for the final version to purchase the books, we like to give notices of both the prepublication and the final version. So if you’ve been wondering what those qualifiers are, wonder no more!

Featured Publication

Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty (final)

Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty presents new and surprising findings about career differences between female and male full-time, tenure-track, and tenured faculty in science, engineering, and mathematics at the nation’s top research universities. Much of this congressionally mandated book is based on two unique surveys of faculty and departments at major U.S. research universities in six fields: biology, chemistry, civil engineering, electrical engineering, mathematics, and physics. A departmental survey collected information on departmental policies, recent tenure and promotion cases, and recent hires in almost 500 departments. A faculty survey gathered information from a stratified, random sample of about 1,800 faculty on demographic characteristics, employment experiences, the allocation of institutional resources such as laboratory space, professional activities, and scholarly productivity.

This book paints a timely picture of the status of female faculty at top universities, clarifies whether male and female faculty have similar opportunities to advance and succeed in academia, challenges some commonly held views, and poses several questions still in need of answers. This book will be of special interest to university administrators and faculty, graduate students, policy makers, professional and academic societies, federal funding agencies, and others concerned with the vitality of the U.S. research base and economy.

All New Publications This Week

Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences: For the Year Ended December 31, 2009 (final)

Toxicity Pathway-Based Risk Assessment: Preparing for Paradigm Change: A Symposium Summary (final)

Leadership Commitments to Improve Value in Healthcare: Toward Common Ground: Workshop Summary (final)

Engineering, Social Justice, and Sustainable Community Development: Summary of a Workshop (final)

Review of the WATERS Network Science Plan (final)

Four New Science Books: Food Safety, Energy Efficiency, and more…

Last week brought us four new reports to the NAP site, including our featured publication in the Food and nutrition topic, Enhancing Food Safety, covering an important topic with a snappy book cover.

Featured Publication

Enhancing Food Safety: The Role of the Food and Drug Administration (prepublication)

Recent outbreaks of illnesses traced to contaminated sprouts and lettuce illustrate the holes that exist in the system for monitoring problems and preventing foodborne diseases. Although it is not solely responsible for ensuring the safety of the nation’s food supply, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees monitoring and intervention for 80 percent of the food supply. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s abilities to discover potential threats to food safety and prevent outbreaks of foodborne illness are hampered by impediments to efficient use of its limited resources and a piecemeal approach to gathering and using information on risks. Enhancing Food Safety: The Role of the Food and Drug Administration, a new book from the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council, responds to a congressional request for recommendations on how to close gaps in FDA’s food safety systems.

Enhancing Food Safety begins with a brief review of the Food Protection Plan (FPP), FDA’s food safety philosophy developed in 2007. The lack of sufficient detail and specific strategies in the FPP renders it ineffectual. The book stresses the need for FPP to evolve and be supported by the type of strategic planning described in these pages. It also explores the development and implementation of a stronger, more effective food safety system built on a risk-based approach to food safety management. Conclusions and recommendations include adopting a risk-based decision-making approach to food safety; creating a data surveillance and research infrastructure; integrating federal, state, and local government food safety programs; enhancing efficiency of inspections; and more.

Although food safety is the responsibility of everyone, from producers to consumers, the FDA and other regulatory agencies have an essential role. In many instances, the FDA must carry out this responsibility against a backdrop of multiple stakeholder interests, inadequate resources, and competing priorities. Of interest to the food production industry, consumer advocacy groups, health care professionals, and others, Enhancing Food Safety provides the FDA and Congress with a course of action that will enable the agency to become more efficient and effective in carrying out its food safety mission in a rapidly changing world.

All New Publications This Week

Persistent Forecasting of Disruptive Technologies–Report 2 (forthcoming)

Real Prospects for Energy Efficiency in the United States (final)

The Domestic and International Impacts of the 2009-H1N1 Influenza A Pandemic: Global Challenges, Global Solutions: Workshop Summary (final)

Sounds of Science Podcast: Reducing the Sodium Intake in the United States

The Sounds of Science podcastThere’s a new episode available of our podcast, The Sounds of Science. This week’s episode is on sodium intake and is based on our report Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States. You can listen to this episode below, and you can subscribe to the podcast to get all the episodes delivered to you when they’re published.

Reducing the Sodium Intake in the Untied States

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Reducing the intake of sodium is an important public health goal for Americans. Since the 1970s, an array of public health interventions and national dietary guidelines has sought to reduce sodium intake. However, the U.S. population still consumes more sodium than is recommended, placing individuals at risk for diseases related to elevated blood pressure.

Ten New Science Books: Lab Animals, Vaccines, Cancer Care, and more…

We’ve been a little quiet lately here at Notes From NAP, due largely to some technical tinkering we’ve needed to do as the summer quietly moves in, so our apologies. We’re back with a bang, though: Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals was released last week, and is our featured publication of the week. See more publications in the topic of Lab Animal Research.

Featured Publication

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (prepublication)

A respected resource for decades, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has been updated by a committee of experts, taking into consideration input from the scientific and laboratory animal communities and the public at large. The Guide incorporates new scientific information on common laboratory animals, including aquatic species, and includes extensive references. It is organized around major components of animal use:

Key concepts of animal care and use. The Guide sets the framework for the humane care and use of laboratory animals.

Animal care and use program. The Guide discusses the concept of a broad Program of Animal Care and Use, including roles and responsibilities of the Institutional Official, Attending Veterinarian and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.

Animal environment, husbandry, and management. A chapter on this topic is now divided into sections on terrestrial and aquatic animals and provides recommendations for housing and environment, husbandry, behavioral and population management, and more.

Veterinary care. The Guide discusses veterinary care and the responsibilities of the Attending Veterinarian. It includes recommendations on animal procurement and transportation, preventive medicine (including animal biosecurity), and clinical care and management. The Guide addresses distress and pain recognition and relief, and issues surrounding euthanasia.

Physical plant. The Guide identifies design issues, providing construction guidelines for functional areas; considerations such as drainage, vibration and noise control, and environmental monitoring; and specialized facilities for animal housing and research needs.

The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals provides a framework for the judgments required in the management of animal facilities. This updated and expanded resource of proven value will be important to scientists and researchers, veterinarians, animal care personnel, facilities managers, institutional administrators, policy makers involved in research issues, and animal welfare advocates.

All New Publications This Week

Considerations for Ensuring Safety and Efficacy of Vaccines and Therapeutic Proteins Manufactured by Using Platform Approaches: Summary of a Workshop (forthcoming)

A Foundation for Evidence-Drive Practice: A Rapid Learning System for Cancer Care: Workshop Summary (prepublication)

Assessment of Technologies for Improving Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy (prepublication)

A Summary of the December 2009 Forum on the Future of Nursing: Care in the Community (final)

Residential Energy Consumption Letter Report (final)

Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use (final)

Achieving Effective Acquisition of Information Technology in the Department of Defense (final)

The Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise: Innovative Strategies to Enhance Products from Discovery Through Approval: Workshop Summary (final)

Regionalizing Emergency Care: Workshop Summary (final)

New Books Covering Health And Medicine, NASA, and Industry And Labor

There were four books new to the NAP site this week, including Evaluation of Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoints in Chronic Disease, a publication by the Institute of Medicine.

Featured Publication

Evaluation of Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoints in Chronic Disease (prepublication)

Many people naturally assume that the claims made for foods and nutritional supplements have the same degree of scientific grounding as those for medication, but that is not always the case. The IOM recommends that the FDA adopt a consistent scientific framework for biomarker evaluation in order to achieve a rigorous and transparent process.

All New Publications This Week

Capabilities for the Future: An Assessment of NASA Laboratories for Basic Research (final)

A Database for a Changing Economy: Review of the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) (final)

Evaluation of the Health and Safety Risks of the New USAMRIID High Containment Facilities at Fort Detrick, Maryland (final)

The science of oil spills and oil spill dispersants

While you’ve no doubt been reading plenty of news about the massive oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, we’d like to offer you a different kind of reading: five books we’ve picked from the NAP collection that deal with the science of oil spills and oil spill dispersal. All of these books are available to read for free in their entirety online.

Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects


Using Oil Spill Dispersants on the Sea


Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects


The Oil Spill Recovery Institute: Past, Present, and Future Directions


Cumulative Environmental Effects of Oil and Gas Activities on Alaska’s North Slope


Four New Books With Free PDFs: Body Armor, Health Care and more…

There are four new publications on the NAP.edu site this week, all four of which have free PDFs to download.

As a quick reminder, we run down the list of new publications here at Notes From NAP every Monday, and we periodically highlight books related to current events and spotlight changes and features of our website. You can subscribe to all posts on Notes From NAP via the RSS feed or delivered by email.

Featured Publication

CNS Clinical Trials: Suicidality and Data Collection: Workshop Summary (prepublication)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now requires that all clinical trials for drugs that affect the central nervous system–including psychiatric drugs–are assessed for whether that drug might cause suicidal ideation or behavior. The IOM’s Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders hosted a meeting on June 26, 2009, to discuss the FDA’s new policy and how to analyze best whether suicidal thoughts predict actual suicidal behavior in the near future.

All New Publications

Review of the Department of Defense Enhanced Particulate Matter Surveillance Program Report (prepublication)

Testing of Body Armor Materials for Use by the U.S. Army–Phase II: Letter Report (final)

Value in Health Care: Accounting for Cost, Quality, Safety, Outcomes, and Innovation (final)

7 New Books In Education, Hydrology, Climate Change & Hybrid Vehicles

Our featured publication of the new books this week is in the topic of education and has already found a good deal of popularity thanks to this article in Education Week. There’s six more books (five with free PDFs) new to nap.edu this week, dealing with subjects such as water and hydrology, testing, and conflict and security issues.

Featured Publication

Preparing Teachers: Building Evidence for Sound Policy (prepublication)

Teachers make a difference. The success of any plan for improving educational outcomes depends on the teachers who carry it out and thus on the abilities of those attracted to the field and their preparation. Yet there are many questions about how teachers are being prepared and how they ought to be prepared. Yet, teacher preparation is often treated as an afterthought in discussions of improving the public education system.

Preparing Teachers addresses the issue of teacher preparation with specific attention to reading, mathematics, and science. The book evaluates the characteristics of the candidates who enter teacher preparation programs, the sorts of instruction and experiences teacher candidates receive in preparation programs, and the extent that the required instruction and experiences are consistent with converging scientific evidence. Preparing Teachers also identifies a need for a data collection model to provide valid and reliable information about the content knowledge, pedagogical competence, and effectiveness of graduates from the various kinds of teacher preparation programs.

Federal and state policy makers need reliable, outcomes-based information to make sound decisions, and teacher educators need to know how best to contribute to the development of effective teachers. Clearer understanding of the content and character of effective teacher preparation is critical to improving it and to ensuring that the same critiques and questions are not being repeated 10 years from now.

All New Publications

Best Practices for State Assessment Systems Part I: Summary of a Workshop (prepublication)

Language Diversity, School Learning, and Closing Achievement Gaps: A Workshop Summary (prepublication)

Review of the WATERS Network Science Plan (prepublication)

The Use of Title 42 Authority at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: A Letter Report (prepublication)

National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces: Letter Report (final)

Transitions to Alternative Transportation Technologies–Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (final)

Earth and Life Studies Video: Landscapes On The Edge

The Division on Earth and Life Studies (DELS) has debuted a new video this week. Landscapes On The Edge: New Horizons For Research on Earth’s Surface explores how Earth’s surface processes interacted to create the landscapes of today and how changing processes will shape Earth’s surface in coming years. Dr. Dorothy Merritts describes the research agenda laid out in the recent National Research Council report Landscapes on the Edge: New Horizons for Research on Earth’s Surface.

Read the full report here and subscribe to our videos on YouTube.

Seven New Books: Reducing Sodium Intake, Obesity Prevention and more

Our big publication this week was Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake In The United States, a report from the Institute of Medicine which received coverage in, among many others, the New York Times and time.com. That publication joins six others—five of which have free PDFs to download–new this week to nap.edu.

Featured Publication

Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States (prepublication)

Reducing the intake of sodium is an important public health goal for Americans. Since the 1970s, an array of public health interventions and national dietary guidelines has sought to reduce sodium intake. However, the U.S. population still consumes more sodium than is recommended, placing individuals at risk for diseases related to elevated blood pressure.

Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States evaluates and makes recommendations about strategies that could be implemented to reduce dietary sodium intake to levels recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The book reviews past and ongoing efforts to reduce the sodium content of the food supply and to motivate consumers to change behavior. Based on past lessons learned, the book makes recommendations for future initiatives. It is an excellent resource for federal and state public health officials, the processed food and food service industries, health care professionals, consumer advocacy groups, and academic researchers.

All New Publications This Week

Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C (final)

Bridging the Evidence Gap in Obesity Prevention: A Framework to Inform Decision Making (prepublication)

Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean (prepublication)

NAKFI Synthetic Biology: Building a Nation’s Inspiration: Interdisciplinary Research Team Summaries (final)

Continuing Assistance to the National Institutes of Health on Preparation of Additional Risk Assessments for the Boston University NEIDL, Phase 1 (final)

Report of a Workshop on The Scope and Nature of Computational Thinking (final)